Cool Gift Ideas images

Some cool Gift Ideas images:

308. CF3
Gift Ideas
Image by Jim Surkamp
VIDEO: The Bower and its Families Part 3
www.youtube.com/watch?v=GE_ou8Ylyc8

POST: The Bower and its Families Part 3 (beginning to 3.23 in the video)
civilwarscholars.com/2021/02/the-bower-and-its-families-p…

The Bower and its Families Part 2 (with bibliography)

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu). This video and all videos in this channel as well as the million words of posts at the corresponding source, civilwarscholars.com – are intended to encourage fact-based discussion to heighten better understanding of the foundational events of our country. Sentiments included in these productions, even if commendable, do not in any way reflect the 21st century policies of the University.

This is the third of about four videos.

I am working with Charles Fox, whose family descended from the remarkable John H. Fox, the owner/operator of three different farms and community leader, revered upon his death and who was born enslaved at the Bower.

I was absorbed in the question of how could and why did those enslaved sang,laughed and danced and even stayed up without sleeping and still working long days in the fields. And yes it is true as a consistent fact of life in Virginia in the early 19th century. I found the same observations in five different diaries in this immediate region. And I came to realize a great truth in this fact which will be explored in the third video. We have been served terribly with descriptions of enslaved peersons as being "child-like and pathetic" ignoring the obvious reality that they received their almost superhuman strength coming from their faith and African musical tradition. That African Americans routinely become the best in any athletic field they enter and the worldwide influence of their musical talents – gospel blues swing jazz motown etc. just underscore these earlier daily practices so long ago.

Glamorous and famous for its visitors (Washington Irving, Robert E. Lee, Jeb Stuart’s entire staff lived there for a month), the pre-Civil War owners practiced people-owning on a large scale – usually about sixty enslaved persons who kept up production there from day to day. A close reading of daily accounts reveals just how much the deepest, knowledge of hunting, cooking, horses etc resided in the most experienced persons of color.

It became famous as the place John Pendleton Kennedy, a relative from Baltimore who also supported Edgar Allan Poe, based his widely read book: "Swallow Barn: A Sojourn in the Old Dominion," that was published in 1832 and 1850.

It was a divided family, with regard to the Civil War, with author Kennedy opposing secession, the Dandridges at the Bower strongly supporting, or as Philip Kennedy put it – Adam Dandridge ate a strong "allowance of the insane root" to quote from Macbeth.

It might include a tragic love story. When John Fox was born in 1845 Adam Stephen Dandridge II was the only adult white male at The Bower.

It circles around Adam Dandridge II and Charles Fox’s great great grandmother "Mary" who was killed at the Bower.

It also follows the incredibly impressive John Fox, one of Mary’s five surviving children and culminates with Charles Fox’s powerfully impressive, of-the-earth, wisdom-dispensing grandfather, Charles Washington Fox.

We’ll leave it at that.

Care is taken to stay consistent with all information in official records (death certificates, Census, marriage records, deeds, and wills) in addition to the Fox family oral tradition, first transmitted by John Fox, with his eye-witness knowledge.

BEGIN

CF 3 0 .54

***

00: – Michael Praetorius: Dances from Terpsichore, Courante
Voices of Music over images 1-7 to :54 – youtube.com

Michael Praetorius: Dances from Terpsichore, Courante
Voices of Music
Hanneke van Proosdij and David Tayler
Directors
Musicians (left to right)
Carla Moore, Gabrielle Wunsch, Lisa Grodin and
Maxine Nemerovski, baroque violins
Maria Caswell, baroque viola
Peter Maund, riqq
Elisabeth Reed and Tanya Tomkins, baroque cellos
Farley Pearce, violone
Hanneke van Proosdij, harpsichord
David Tayler, archlute & percussion
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=yoGvKFSvs0o

1.

Two Women with Head-Ties, Jamaica, 1808-1815 – loc.gov
web4.encyclopediavirginia.org
web4.encyclopediavirginia.org/slave_images/Slavery/detail…

2.
Robert Greenhow Jr., ca. 1808, Charles B. J. Févret de Saint-Mémin (French, 1770 – 1852), pastel and crayon on toned paper, 18 3/8 x 14 in. (47.9 x 35.6 cm.). Gift of Mrs. William R. Scott 98.3.3/3
vmfa.museum
www.vmfa.museum/tours/audio-tours/web-tour-friend-heart-c…

3
Man Smoking a Pipe, ca. 1800-1825
slaveryimages.org
www.slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/1480/mirador

4.
Mrs. Robert Greenhow Sr. (Mary Ann Willis), ca. 1808, Charles B. J. Févret de Saint-Mémin, (French, 1770 – 1852), pastel and crayon on toned paper, 19 5/8 x 13 7/8 in. (49.8 x 35.3 cm. ). Gift of Mrs. William R. Scott 98.3.1/3
vmfa.museum
www.vmfa.museum/tours/audio-tours/web-tour-friend-heart-c…

5. Tangerian Girl by José Tapiro y Baro – 1891. Dahesh Museum of Art in New York
arthistoryproject.com
arthistoryproject.com/artists/jose-tapiro-y-baro/tangeria…

6.
Robert Greenhow Sr., ca. 1808, Charles B. J. Févret de Saint-Mémin (French, 1770 – 1852), pastel and crayon on toned paper, 19 5/8 x 14 1/8 in. (48.8 x 35.9 cm.). Gift of Mrs. William R. Scott 98.3.2/3
vmfa.museum
www.vmfa.museum/tours/audio-tours/web-tour-friend-heart-c…

7.
Absalam by SANTIAGO ARCOS Y MEGALDE
bonhams.com
www.bonhams.com/auctions/23917/lot/10/?category=results

CF3 .54 1.39 Images

***

8. Title

9. Bower aerial
Google Maps
google.com/maps
www.google.com/maps/@39.3664719,-77.9554242,1762m/data=!3…

10. rear exit The Bower taken by Edwin Fitzpatrick
Jefferson County Historical Society (1991). "Between the Shenandoah & the Potomac."
Charles Town, WV: self-published. p. ADD

11. brief moving dresses no sound – Gone With the Wind (fair use)

12. Portrait of Adam Stephen Dandridge, Sr. (1782-1821) by Charles Peale Polk 1799-1800
emuseum.history.org
emuseum.history.org/objects/28061/portrait-of-adam-stephe…

13. same as 11

14. Portrait of Sarah Pendleton Dandridge (Mrs. Adam Stephen Dandridge, Sr.)(1785-1855)
by James W. Macoughtry, Jr. 1831
emuseum.history.org
emuseum.history.org/objects/42669/portrait-of-sarah-pendl…

15. The first quadrille at Almack’s From Recollections of Captain Gronow (1850)
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/363313894910535906/

16. The "Trenis" Quadrille, Plate 19 from "Le Bon Genre," 1805
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/427349452145394118/

17. swirling dress
Gone With tHe Wind fair use and

18. Figure 11. A German Cotillion, Vienna, c.1825. From Scenes du Bal by Charles Henry.
regencydances.org
www.regencydances.org/paper011.php

19. Object: Le baiser deviné; Series: Le Bon Genre – 1812
britishmuseum.org
www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1866-0407-902

***

1:41 – Summer Nights from Desert Winds produced by Shana Aisenberg over images 20-26 to 3:23
2:22 – FX carriages, hooves, horses over images 24-26 to 3:23
2:24 – FX Owl frogs autumn over images 24-25 to 3:01

20. Spider’s web in the sun

21. James Kirke Paulding
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JKPaulding.jpg
& history.navy.mil
www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-p/jk-pauld.htm
Author Government of the United States

22. Joseph of Egypt
frchriszugger.com
frchriszugger.com/2018/03/21/joseph-of-egypt-and-christ/

**
J. K. Paulding: I once knew a worthy old lady, who never saw or heard any thing in this World that did not put her in mind of Joseph in Egypt. Whenever any thing was told her, no matter what,

23. A pretty girl and an old woman both taking snuff. Coloured stipple engraving after L. Boilly, ca. 1827.
wellcomecollection.org INCLUDE Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
wellcomecollection.org/works/q6j67tvc

**
she would take a pinch of snuff, and exclaim with a devotional air, “Ah! that puts me in mind of Joseph in Egypt.” Nobody could tell why; but so it was

*
Paulding, James Kirke. (1835). "Letters from the South By a Northern man."
New-York : Harper & brothers
p. 50 Vol 2
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112046404643&vi…

24. TITLE James Kirke Paulding in 1816, while heading north in the Shenandoah Valley
to Martinsburg:

25. Shenandoah Valley by William Louis Sonntag, Sr. 1859–1860Virginia Historical Society
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shenandoah_Valley_William…

**

In traversing this mountain region, one of the first things that struck me was the solemn, severe silence which prevailed every where, and only broken at distant intervals, by the note of the cock of the woods; the chirping of a ground squirrel; the crash of a falling tree, or the long echoes of the fowler’s gun, which render the silence, thus broken in upon for a moment, still more striking.

p. 116 vol 1
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112046404387&vi…

26. Drawing by Garth Williams, 1953 version of Little House in the Big Woods, pg. 123
silverhomestead.com
silverhomestead.com/how-to-make-brown-sugar/

**

In many places the only traces of human agency are the incisions of the sugar maple, and the little troughs at the foot of the tree turned upside down, to wait the flowing of the sap in the spring.

Paulding Vol. 1 p. 118
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112046404387&vi…

CF 3 3.23 5.32

***

3:23 – FX hum of voices over images 27-30 to 5:32

*

Begins

Paulding, James Kirke. (1817) "Letters from the South, written during an excursion in the summer of 1816." New York, Published by James Eastburn & co.

pp. 117-131

p. 121
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/121/mode/1up

**

27. James Kirke Paulding
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JKPaulding.jpg
& history.navy.mil
www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-p/jk-pauld.htm
Author Government of the United States

At one of the taverns along the road, we were set down in the same room with a man, who was

28.
Eugène Pelletan by Nadar 1855–59 – Purchase, The Howard Gilman Foundation Gift and Rogers Fund,
metmuseum.org/
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/266480

**

an ill-looking, hard-featured, pock-marked, fellow. He was going, it seems, to Richmond.

WARNING DISTURBING ACCOUNTS OF EXTREME CRUELTY

All along the road, I made it his business to inquire where lived a man who might perhaps be tempted to sell him his slaves and when I got some half a dozen of them, I tied their hands behind their backs, and drove them three or four hundred miles, or more, bare-headed, and half naked, I gave out that they were runaway slaves I was carrying home to their masters.

On one occasion a black woman exposed this fallacy, and told the story of her being kidnapped; and (123) when I got her into a wood out of hearing, I beat her, till her back was white."

I married all the men and women I bought, because they would sell better for being man and wife !

"For many is the time I have separated wives from husbands, and husbands from wives, and parents from children ;

but then I made them amends by marrying them again as soon as I had a chance

I made one bad purchase, though," I bought a young mulatto girl, a lovely creature, — a great bargain. She had been the favourite of her master, who had lately married.

The difficulty was, to get her to go ; for she loved her master.

However, I swore most bitterly I was only going to take her to her mother at , and she went with me; though she seemed to doubt me very much.

But when she discovered at last that we were out of the State, I thought she would go mad ; and, in fact, the next night, drowned herself in the river close by.

I lost a good five hundred dollars by this foolish trick,

p. 121
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/121/mode/1up

29. James Kirke Paulding
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JKPaulding.jpg
& history.navy.mil
www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-p/jk-pauld.htm
Author Government of the United States

**
page 120

it is seldom we see the ties of kindred or of conjugal affection, stronger than in the poor negro. He will travel twelre, fifteen, or twenty miles, to see his wife and children, after his daily

30. by Miguel Ângelo Lupi 1879. This is a couple of former slaves that accompained a portuguese aristocrat, Serpa Pinto, in his voyages through Africa
pinterest.es
www.pinterest.es/pin/443886107023349726/

page 121

labour is over, and return in the morning to his labour again. If he obtains his liberty, he will often devote the first years of his liberty to buying their freedom; — thus setting an example of conjugal and parental affection, which the white man may indeed admire ; but, it is feared, would seldom imitate.

pp. 120-121
archive.org
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/120/mode/1up

Paulding, James Kirke. (1817) "Letters from the South, written during an excursion in the summer of 1816." New York, Published by James Eastburn & co.

pp. 117-131

CF3 5.32 7.18

***

Gourd Banjo and Hambone on a Mississippi Porch
Markus James – gourd banjo
Calvin Jackson – hambone

From the album "Head For The Hills" by Markus James;
As heard in the HBO film "The Immortal Life Of Henrietta Lacks" featuring Oprah Winfrey
www.facebook.com/markusjamesm...

youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTKE3IaVVmA

Images 31, 32 and 34-38
The Old Plantation attributed to John Rose
Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Williamsburg, Virginia
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Old_Plantation#/media/File:Slav…

33. Bower Farm Leetown WV – Jim Surkamp

39. The Highest Bidder by Harry Roseland
encore-editions.com
www.encore-editions.com/to-the-highest-bidder-by-harry-ro…

40.The Power of Music by Wm Sidney Mount – 1847
theimaginativeconservative.org
theimaginativeconservative.org/2018/11/images-america-wil…

41. "Aunt Lucy" Hermitage – 1915
Essie Collins Matthews, Aunt Phebe, Uncle Tom and Others: Character Studies Among the Old Slaves of the South, Fifty Years After: illustrated from photographs made by the author in the cabins and on the plantations (Columbus, Ohio, 1915)
slaveryimages.org
slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/1553
Aunt Phebe, Uncle Tom and Other, p. 104

42. Man with axe
Kennedy, John Pendleton, (1856) "Swallow barn, or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion." New York, G.P. Putnam & Company.
p. 404
hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433076089170&vie…

43a. Head of a Black man by Eastman Johnson – 1868
wikiart.org
www.wikiart.org/en/eastman-johnson/head-of-a-black-man-1868

43b. Frank Wagoner by D.H. Strother Harpers Feb. 1855, p. 300
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090080&vie…

44. The Banjo Player by Wm Sidney Mount – 1856
theimaginativeconservative.org
theimaginativeconservative.org/2018/11/images-america-wil…

45. Swallow Barn man with pipe
Kennedy, John Pendleton, (1856) "Swallow barn, or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion." New York, G.P. Putnam & Company.
p. 448
hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433076089170&vie…

46a. Bill Napper by D.H. Strother 1845
P.95.30.391pg13
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

46b. detail The Power of Music by Wm Sidney Mount – 1847
theimaginativeconservative.org
theimaginativeconservative.org/2018/11/images-america-wil…

47a. “A Swedish Gentleman instructing a Negro Prince” by Carl Fredric von Breda – 1789
Karolina Kristensson, © Nordiska museet
digitaltmuseum.se
digitaltmuseum.se/011023459953/tavla

47b. cook by D.H. Strother Harpers Jan. 1856 p. 177
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090064&vie…

47c. Antique Martinique Merchant
www.picclick.com
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/463589355373107433/

48. Shell Mound Station by D.H. Strother
P.95.30.393pg4a
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

SOURCES of given persons: names in this chapter:

First Section
Pinco – from account book of A.S.Dandridge II – Jefferson County Museum & The Mighty Myth of the Happy Plantation at civilwarscholars.com;
Carey (Swallow Barn);
Cate, Eliza, Serina, Anne and Mary (wills of Adam Stephen and his daughter, Anne Stephen Hunter),

Second Section – Source of persons’ names in the montage

Walter Dean Myers, who was born in Martinsburg, descended from the Dennis family who worked at The Bower and has become a respected author, wrote this in his book, “Now Is Your Time”:

“In 1849, Adam Stephen Dandridge II lived at The Bower and ran the plantation. His brother Philip lived nearby. When Philip needed to secure his loans, he put up part of his inheritance, which consisted of part of the Bower lands and his Africans:

‘The following slaves, the property of the said Philip P. Dandridge, now in his possession in Jefferson County, or in the custody of Dr. Gellot Hollingsworth and Samuel Hollingsworth, in the State of Louisiana, together with the increase (children) of said slaves – vis; Cato, Henny, George, Robert, John, Daniel, James, Simon, Peter, Tina, Caroline, Leah, Mary Ann and her children, Rachael, Ann, Louisa & children, Frances, Margaret, Patty, including all of the slaves of the said Philip P. Dandridge, whether named or not. . . to secure a debt of said P. P. Dandridge’ – (Myers, P. 99)

The Mighty Myth of the Happy Plantation

civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/sample-post/

interview 2002 with Jim Surkamp

civilwarscholars.com

***

7:20 – Shana Aisenberg on banjo with accompaniment over images 49

49. "Mary" semblance
David Hunter Strother, Sketches of “contrabands,” enslaved African Americans who crossed into the federal lines, 1862. Courtesy of the Library of Virginia.
southernspaces.org
southernspaces.org/2010/retelling-virginias-migration-his…

**
I got this from Uncle Dewey because he spoke for black history month down here. He said that somebody told the mistress there was four little foxes down there looking out the window: She got the market basket and went down ‘thought he was talking about animals.
And they were these Negro children. So of course she told the master. So he said: ‘Well just bring ‘em on up here and he put ‘em in the kitchen. And he said they would take a tub, like a foot tub, put bread in it, and milk, pour it in there and they ate with the cats and dogs under the kitchen table.

But by being at the big house, they learned to talk. They learned to read. They just learned things. When you’re ’round, you pick up – he was not back there in the field somewhere.

So, one of ’em became a preacher. One of ’em became a cook. And that one I think – we would say – like a butler. He was ssomething like – if you saw "Roots" – he was like Chicken John. And as I said, the girl, they lost trace of her. Steve went to Ohio. So they lost trace of him. And farmer John, see, he bought the oxen and he cut lumber. He was known as a lumber jacket.

And if you would read the history of St. Paul’s Church, it was John Fox – that’s my grandfather – It was George Johnson – grandfather on my mother’s side, a Carter and I think three other men – bought that piece of land where that church is. They paid for it. An’ lot of the lumber in the church John Fox gave.

50. Bertha Jones, Jefferson Co. NAACP Executive Committee
jeffcomuseumwv.pastperfectonline.com
jeffcomuseumwv.pastperfectonline.com/archive/75847923-F4F…

51. Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Winslow_Homer_-_Sunday_Mo…

52a. A patent of nobility by D. H. Strother Harpers July, 1866 p. 139
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090353&vie…

52b
Benjamin Fox
findagrave.com
www.findagrave.com/memorial/190534275/benjamin-f-fox

53.
Humphery black child on horseback by D.H. Strother
P.95.30.390pg13
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

54.
Mary Kindling the fire by D.H. Strother Harpers Aug, 1855 p. 295
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090072&vie…

55.
Steve Aunt Winnie by D.F. Strother Harper’s Aug, 1856 p. 310
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056089801&vie…

56. Bower field and horse by Jim Surkamp

57a.
(John Fox semblance) African American boy sitting by D. H. Strother – 1864
P.95.30.345
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

57b. John Henry Fox – courtesy Charles Fox

58
St. Paul’s Baptist Church
Kearneysville, WV
google.com/maps
www.google.com/maps/uv?pb=!1s0x89c9ffadeda3091b%3A0x5c698…

later

"Baltimore" tea et by D.H. Strother 1860
P.95.30.27
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

The Wood-pile by D.F. Strother Harper’s Aug, 1856 p. 316
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056089801&vie…
for litle potatoe segment

CF 3 9:48 12.14

***
9:48 – hum over images 59-60 to 10:07
Skip James- Hard Time Killin’ Floor Blues
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNftrsCMiQs

59. Bower field and horse – Jim Surkamp

60. TITLE

**
In 1754, the New Light Baptists, led by Shubal Stearns, came down from Connecticut, crossed into Virginia at the Opequon & clashed head-on with the Episcopal Church – the State religion.

10:08 – "Deliver" New Light Baptist Church of Pittsburgh over images 61-80 to 12:16

starts at 1:52-5:09
New Light Temple Baptist Church (Pittsburgh, PA) Jubilee Choir 1997
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=StiBu3Dla74

61 TITLE

**
The children of Africa down through the Shenandoah Valley got it at once. They had every day sung and beat the beat for thousands of years.

62. TITLE

**

On farms and plantations, they inhabited their Inner Kingdom and together invented and sang out Truth in the Lion’s den. But using these newly learned Biblical stories, they confounded the Lion.

63-80 New Light Temple Baptist Church (Pittsburgh, PA) Jubilee Choir 1997

CF3 12.16 17.00

SOURCES:

"THE COLORED TROOPS AT PETERSBURG" by GEN. HENRY GODDARD THOMAS. in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Vol. 4. New York: The Century Co.pp. 563-568

CHAPTER 22 – Manassas: The Men Become One by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com
civilwarscholars.com/2017/03/story-22-manassas-the-men-be…

CHAPTER 22: Manassas Camp – The Men Become One (from Jasper Tjhompson’s Destiny Day)
youtube.com
youtu.be/KSXoj0c5My4#t=2h49m57s
***

hum over images 59-60 to 10:07
Skip James- Hard Time Killin’ Floor Blues
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNftrsCMiQs

**
81. TITLE
At any quiet moment together, one might test a tune and sing it into the silence. And the others "study" it, some adding a harmony, or the first person would make the tune or beat better. Others might join. Then more might. And a mountain would
begin to move, lifting hearts.

TITLES:

82. WITH THE U.S. COLORED TROOPS

83. 23RD INFANTRY REGIMENT

84. ON THE EVE OF THE BATTLE OF THE CRATER JULY 30, 1864

85. "STUDY-ING"

***

12:56 – Soldier Song by Shana Aisenberg over images 85-92 to 13:35
13:35 – guitar by Shana Aisenberg over images 92-102 to 15:15
15:15 over images 102-104 to 17:10

86, 87, 88
[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing] taken by E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm) – [New York City : E. & H.T. Anthony Co., photographed between 1862 and 1865, printed later]
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/98500957/

**
Robert K. Beecham, James Douglas, Voghl Foster, George Kellum, John H. Simms, George W. Taylor, Uriah Perry, Perry Smith, James Smith, William H. Chandler,

**
Adam C. Liscomb, Charles Walker, Henry Yates, George H. Briscoe, Peter Churchwell, Zelotis Fessenden, Noble A. Stewart, John W. Thomas, Francis Tucker, Abraham Tuxon, Basil Tyler, Richard Saunders, Alexander Savoy

89.
Musical notation of Soldier Song by Maj. Gen. Henry Thomas
p. 564
archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof04cent#page/564/mode/1up

90. Head of a Man (Ira Frederick Aldridge) by John P. Simpson
tate.org.uk
www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/simpson-head-of-a-man-ira-fr…

dual
91. Maj. Gen Henry Thomas
p. 565
archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof04cent#page/565/mode/1up

92.
Drawing by Ward S. Day, 5th New York, Company C

93.
News from home by Edwin Forbes – Sept. 30, 1863
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.20648/

**

Strolling often around the camp their commander Henry G. Thomas observed later:

Any striking event or piece of news was usually eagerly discussed by the white troops, and in the ranks military critics were as plenty and perhaps more voluble than among the officers.

94. & 95.
[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing] taken by E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm) – [New York City : E. & H.T. Anthony Co., photographed between 1862 and 1865, printed later]
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/98500957/

Not so with the blacks; important news was usually followed by long silence. They sat about in groups, “studying,” as they called it. They waited, like the Quakers, for the spirit to move; when the spirit moved,

96.
Head of a Man (Ira Frederick Aldridge) by John P. Simpson
tate.org.uk
www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/simpson-head-of-a-man-ira-fr…

one of their singers would uplift a mighty voice, like a bard of old, in a wild sort of chant. If he did not strike a sympathetic chord in his hearers,

97 & 98
[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing] taken by E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm) – [New York City : E. & H.T. Anthony Co., photographed between 1862 and 1865, printed later]
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/98500957/

if they did not find in his utterance the exponent of their idea, he would sing it again and again, altering sometimes the words, more often the music. If his changes met general acceptance, one voice after another would chime in; a rough harmony of three parts would add itself;

99. 26th United States Colored Volunteer Inf. at Camp William Penn, 1865
archives.gov
www.archives.gov/files/research/military/civil-war/photos…

other groups would join his, and the song would become the song of the command.

100.
Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

**

One evening Thomas saw this act of creation and wrote down its core.

The joyous guffaw always breaking out about the camp-fire ceased. They formed circles in their company streets and were sitting on the ground intently and solemnly “studying.” At last a heavy voice began to sing,

“We-e looks li-ike we-en a-a-marchin’ on, We looks li-ike men-er-war.”

dual
101
Head of a Man (Ira Frederick Aldridge) by John P. Simpson
tate.org.uk
www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/simpson-head-of-a-man-ira-fr…

102
Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

Over and over again he sang it, making slight changes in the melody. The rest listened to him intently; no sign of approval or disapproval escaped their lips or appeared on their faces. All at once, when his refrain had struck the right response in their hearts, his group took it up, and shortly half a thousand voices were upraised extemporizing a half dissonant middle part and bass. It was a picturesque scene these dark men, with their white eyes and teeth and full red lips, crouching over a smoldering camp-fire, in dusky shadow, with only the feeble rays of the lanterns of the first sergeants and the lights of the candles dimly showing through the tents. The sound was as weird as the scene, when all the voices struck the low E (last note but one), held it, and then rose to A with a portamento as sonorous as it was clumsy. Until we fought the battle of the crater they sang this every night to the exclusion of all other songs.- Battles & Leaders V. 4
archive.org pp. 563-564

archive.org
archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof04cent#page/563/mode/1up
pp. 563-564

103. TITLE
www.storey.com/article/hello-darkness/

**
Songs and laughter heal aching hearts, weary bones

104. Full moon
naturalnavigator.com
www.naturalnavigator.com/news/2019/10/how-to-tell-if-you-…

CF3 17.11 22.45

***

17:11 FX owls, frogs/frog chorus/summer night ambience insects, crickets over images 104-
109 to 17:43

104. full moon
naturalnavigator.com
www.naturalnavigator.com/news/2019/10/how-to-tell-if-you-…

**
TITLES

105.
3 AM July 23rd 1850, a full moon

106.
"The Quarter" of A.S. Dandridge – Leetown, then Va.

107.
The morning of the wheat harvest . . .

***

17:27 – hambone and gourd banjo over images 108-118 to 19:10
From the album "Head For The Hills" by Markus James
Markus James – gourd banjo
Calvin Jackson – hambone
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTKE3IaVVmA

17:33 black laughing over images 108-111 to 17:58
Black People Laughing | Try Not To Laugh Challenge
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCq_D-vGueM&t=194s

108.
As usual, cabins in the Quarter vibrated most of the night with song, dance, and laughter around their fires.

109.
Traveling diarists across Virginia reported for decades that the black workers were incredibly fit, slept little,

***

17:44 – FX fire burning, wood crackle over images 110-118 to 19:10

TITLE
**
sharing the wee hours in a joyous, private world.
montage

110. Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112
clockwise begin lower vieer’s right"

110a. & 110b.
Negro Life at the South by Eastman Johnson – 1859 New-York Historical Society, The Robert L. Stuart Collection
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negro_Life_at_the_South#/media/File…
110b. Kitchen at Mount Vernon by Eastman Johnson – 1864 – Mount Vernon
emuseum.mountvernon.org
emuseum.mountvernon.org/objects/6118/kitchen-at-mount-ver…

110c. Dinah by Eastman Johnson – 1867 Gibbes Museum of Art
npg.si.edu
npg.si.edu/object/npg_2006.007_Gibbes

110d., 110e., 110f. Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
Plantation Dance ring shout (3 still images)
mhenrystl Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQgrIcCtys0

110g. Four Studies of the Head of a Negro by Peter Paul Rubens – 1615 Royal Museum of Fine Arts of Belgium
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

110h. Uncle Tom and Little Eva by Edwin Long 1866 – Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edwin_Longsden_Long_-_Unc…

110i. Head of a Moor by Peter Paul Rubens – 1620 – Hyde Collection
uir.unisa.ac.za
uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/19126/Van%20Haute_…

110j. Negro Life at the South by Eastman Johnson – 1859 New-York Historical Society, The Robert L. Stuart Collection
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negro_Life_at_the_South#/media/File…

***

17:53 – frying bacon over image 111 to 18:16

TITLE
** We’re bakin’ cakes for the ‘morrow
111. Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

TITLE
** "Mush Cake" "Corn Cake" lard + cornmeal + water salt
112. Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

113. (Same as 110)
begin Bayard

**
At four o’clock in the morning smoke was still rising from the huts of the negroes. They have fire during the entire night, and in the hottest season. Often, instead of sleeping, they smoke, sing or converse, without that loss of sleep affecting them.

114. Dance in Congo Square in the late 18th century, artist’s conception by E. W. Kemble from a century later
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congo_Square#/media/File:Dancing_in…

**
Almost all of them, after a night devoted to pleasure, can take up their labor without

115. Carolus-Duran, l’homme endormi, 1861, hst
Musée des beaux-arts de Lille visite du 3 juin 2009 © gaelle kermen 2009
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/497929302535845386/

**
experiencing that weariness that a white man would feel who had been deprived of his rest.

*
CHAPTER XXVII
at four o’clock in the morning smoke was still rising from the huts of the negroes
They have fire during the entire night, and in the hottest season. Often, instead of sleeping, they smoke, sing or converse, without that loss of sleep affecting them. Almost all of them, after a night devoted to pleasure, can take up their labor without experiencing that weariness that a white man would feel who had been deprived of his rest.

Bayard, Ferdinand Marie, (1950). "Travels of a Frenchman in Maryland and Virginia,
with a description of Philadelphia and Baltimore, in 1791: or, Travels in the interior of the United States, to Bath, Winchester, in the valley of the Shenandoah, etc., etc., during the summer of 1791." Translated by Ben C. McCary. An Arbor, MU: Edwards Brothers.
catalog.hathitrust.org
catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001263616

*
MORE
CHAPTER XXVII

I set out at four o’clock in the morning in order to be able to be on the mountains before the sun was too high. A light fog cov ered the valley like a transparent veil, and through which appeared the tree tops, the houses of the planters, as well as the huts of the Negroes, from which smoke was still rising. The slaves have fire during the entire night, and in the hottest season. Often, instead of sleeping, they smoke, sing or converse, without that loss of sleep affecting them. Almost all of them, after a night devoted to pleas ure, can take up their labor without experiencing that weariness that a white man would feel who had been deprived of his rest.

I found the squirrels wide awake. They were climbing with agility in the largest oaks, taking the precaution to keep the entire thickness of the body of the tree between them and me, whom they looked at from time to time to be sure that I had not gone round their file leader. The instinct of self preservation no doubt sug gested to them that precaution which presents the greatest obsta cles to the hunter; but all that ruse does not preserve them from the shot of the enemy; it has made him only more skillful.

In the regions where, as in the Shenandoah Valley, squirrels are very numerous, they are hunted without dogs; but if you want to kill a great number of them, you must get up early in the morn ing and wait for them to return from their nightly wanderings.

There are three species of squirrels, the first differs from the one we know in France only in that it is smaller, and the Amer icans call the members of this group Fox-Squirrel; the second, smaller, has grey fur; the third still smaller, but of the same color, is that of the flying squirrels: the latter have two mem branes which they spread out when they spring from one tree to another. The flesh of the grey squirrels is white and tender: they are roasted and seasoned with cream sauce: the furriers buy their skins.

p. 96
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027057820&vie…
END MORE

Over images 116-117
**
I never meet a man — unless he is quite old — that he is not whistling ; and the women sing from morning till night. And as to dancing, the hardest day’s work does not restrain their desire to indulge in such pastime.
Swallow Barn pp. 454
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=plaint…

116. The Old Plantation. Courtesy of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, Va.
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Old_Plantation#/media/File:Slav…

**
I never met a negro man — unless he is quite old — that he is not whistling;

117. Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
Plantation Dance ring shout – youtube.com

**
and the women sing from morning till night.

118. Self-Portrait by Eastman Johnson 1865 – Brooklyn Museum
brooklynmuseum.org
www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/2234

**
And as to dancing, the hardest day’s work does not restrain their desire to indulge in such pastime.

***

19:10 – FX cockrell crow over image 119 to 19:12

**
They are great sportsmen, too.

**
They angle and haul the seine, and hunt and tend their traps, with a zest that never grows weary.

**
Their gayety of heart is constitutional and perennial, and when they are together they are as voluble and noisy. birds. In short, I think them the most good-natured, and happily-constructed human beings I have ever seen.

Swallow Barn
pp. 454-455
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=1up&am…

**
During the harvest, when their toil is pushed to its utmost, they dance almost the whole night. – Swallow Barn pp. 454-455

119. sunrise over wheat field
wallpaperflare.com
www.wallpaperflare.com/earth-field-sun-sunbeam-sunrise-wh…

***

19:14 – scythe cutting wheat over images 120-121 to 19:27

120. Men Harvesting Grain with Scythes
wisconsinhistory.org
www.wisconsinhistory.org/Records/Image/IM59541

121. John Pendleton Kennedy, C.1825
by Philip Tilyard
art.com
www.art.com/products/p38298748725-sa-i9815433/philip-tily…

**
JPK – wrote of life at The Bower that I know well. I have seen that they are also great sportsmen, too.

122. Mending the Net 1882 by Thomas Eakins
poulwebb.blogspot.com
1882 Mending the Net
watercolour

**
They angle and haul the seine, and hunt and tend their traps,

***

19:37 – Shana Aisenberg banjo over images 123-128

123. possum
Swallow Barn p. 405 babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=1up&am…

**
with a zest that never grows weary.

124. The Dancing Boy – 1878 by Thomas Eakins
poulwebb.blogspot.com
poulwebb.blogspot.com/2012/07/thomas-eakins-part-2.html

**
Their gaiety of heart is constitutional and perennial, and when they are together they are voluble and noisy. In short, I think them the most good-natured, and happily-constructed human beings I have ever seen.

125. Uncle Tom and Little Eva by Edwin Longsden Long – 1866 Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum, Bournemouth
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncle_Tom_and_Little_Eva_(painting)

END JPK QUOTE
INSERT PAULING
DEAR FRANK,

126.
The Banjo Lesson 1893 by Henry Ossawa Tanner
wikiart.org
www.wikiart.org/en/henry-ossawa-tanner/the-banjo-lesson-1893

Over images 126-133
**
They are by far the most musical of any portion of the inhabitants of the United States, and in the evening I have seen them reclining in their boats on the canal at Richmond, playing on the banjo, and singing in a style — I dare say, equal to a Venetian Gondolier.

Then they whistle as clear as the notes of the fife and their laugh is the very echo of hilarity.

Paulding, James Kirke. (1817) "Letters from the South, written during an excursion in the summer of 1816." New York, Published by James Eastburn & co.
p. 118
archive.org
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/118/mode/1up

**

They are by far the most musical of any portion of the inhabitants of the United States, and in the evening I have seen them playing on the banjo, and singing in a style — I dare say, equal to a Venetian Gondolier.

127. African American man singing
New Light Temple Baptist Church (Pittsburgh, PA) Jubilee Choir 1997 – youtube.com

20:08 over image 128 to 20:15
The Best Singing Gondolier at the Venetian, Las Vegas – Tino!
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCrsWf2x5cA

128. Venetian
ethnicepicurenyc.com
www.ethnicepicurenyc.com/culture-performances/2017/2/2/it…

129. James Kirke Paulding

**
Then they whistle as clear as the notes of the fife ;

***

20:20 – fife by Kellerman and whistle by Bobbe McFerren over images 130-131 to 20:58

130.
Irish Hornpipes – Wouter Kellerman on Fife – The Live Sessions (Part 1)
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q4Ak4FynFYE

131
DontWorryBeHappy #Vevo
Bobby McFerrin – Don’t Worry Be Happy (Official Video)
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=d-diB65scQU

***

20:58 – people laughing over images 132-133 to 21:19
Black People Laughing | Try Not To Laugh Challenge
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCq_D-vGueM&t=194s

132. James Kirke Paulding

**
and their laugh is the very echo of hilarity.

133. Four Studies of the Head of a Negro (black) by Peter Paul Rubens
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

***

21:25 – Shana Aisenberg banjo over images 133-141 to 22:35

**

and their laugh is the very echo of hilarity.

END PAULDING

**
He will make himself happy in the traps that have been laid for him; he will roll in their nets and sleep. All doors will fly open to him

134. Jacob Jordaens, Study of a Black Man’s Head (ca. 1620). Medium and size unknown. Formerly New York, Estate of Jacob Goldschmidt; present location unknown
OTHER SOURCE OF ART AFRICAN
Black tronies in seventeenth-centur y Flemish ar t and the African presence
uir.unisa.ac.za
uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/19126/Van%20Haute_…

**

who has a mildness more defiant than mere courage.

135. Barroom Dancing by John Lewis Krimmel – 1828 –
Library of Congress – commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Barroom_Dancing_by_John_L…

**

He will be always "taken in." To be taken in everywhere is to see

136. The Banjo Lesson 1893 by Henry Ossawa Tannerwikiart.org
wikiart.org
www.wikiart.org/en/henry-ossawa-tanner/the-banjo-lesson-1893

**
the inside of everything.

SOURCE on the greenhorn
G.K. Chesterton Pick Papers notes
gkc.org.uk
www.gkc.org.uk/gkc/books/CD-1.html#IV

137. Thoughts of Liberia – Emancipation by Edward White 1861 – New York Historical Society
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_White#/media/File:’Thoughts_o…
137a. You sang
137b. away
137c. being owned

You sang away being owned

138. Four Studies of the Head of a Negro by Peter Paul Rubens
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

139 Four Studies of the Head of a Negro by Peter Paul Rubens
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

140 Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
Plantation Dance ring shout (3 still images)
mhenrystl Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQgrIcCtys0

141 full moon
naturalnavigator.com
www.naturalnavigator.com/news/2019/10/how-to-tell-if-you-…

JPK

Their fondness for music and dancing is a predominant passion. I never meet a negro man — unless he is quite old — that he is not whistling ; and the women sing from morning till night. And as to dancing, the hardest day’s work does not restrain their desire to indulge in such pastime. During the harvest, when their toil is pushed to its utmost — the time being one of recognized privileges — they dance almost the whole night. They are great sportsmen, too. They angle and haul the seine, and hunt and tend their traps, with a zest that never grows weary. Their gayety of heart is constitutional and perennial, and when they are together they are voluble and noisy. In short, I think them the most good-natured, careless, light-hearted, and happily-constructed human beings I have ever seen.
Swallow Barn pp. 454
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=plaint…

CF3 22.45 25.53

*
CHAPTER 11 – A Year’s Work in 1850 by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com
civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-11-a-years-work-in-1…

***

22:45 – FX sound of overseer’s tin trumpet over images 142 and 142a to 23:01
Slave Horn – A History of Kentucky in 25 Objects KET – Kentucky Educational Television
:31 sound
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOZgNrOPvu0

22:45 – FX full summer night sounds over images 142-142b to 23:07

142. Tin Horn 12 Years a Slave movie
142b.
www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOZgNrOPvu0

142a. Bower field and horse – Jim Surkamp

142b. Sunrise on wheat field

***

23:03 – FX sharpening scythes over images 142b and 143 to 23:15
23:14 – cutting wheat with scythes over image 143 to 23:55
23:22 – Rosie work song over image 143 to 23:59
Alan Lomax, Negro Prison & Blues Songs Rosie
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=fs1lgG81ZV8&list=PLcxxc3BIKvC…

143. Men Harvesting Grain with Scythes
wisconsinhistory.org
www.wisconsinhistory.org/Records/Image/IM59541

***

23:59 – Shana Aisenberg on mandolin over images 144-153 to 25:53.

144a. 1850 Poor Richard’s Almanac
archive.org
archive.org/stream/poorrichardsalm00frangoog#page/n18/mod…

144b. Farmers Nooning by William Sidney Mount – 1836
Long Island Museum (United States – Stony Brook, Long Island, New York)
artsandculture.google.com
artsandculture.google.com/asset/farmers-nooning-william-s…

***

24:09 – FX ravens over image 145 to 24:20

145. Stacking wheat by Edwin Forbes. – 1863 loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/2004661851/

146. Corn Husking by Eastman Johnson – 1860
Everson Museum of Art commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corn_Husking_by_Eastman_J…(1860).jpg

147. Charleston Vegetable Woman by William Aiken Walker
wahooart.com
en.wahooart.com/@@/8XX6CG-William-Aiken-Walker-Charleston…

See W.A. Walker en.wahooart.com/Art.nsf/Art_EN?Open&Complex&Query=(([Champ1]=%22William%20Aiken%20Walker%22)%20AND%20(%22Painting%22,%22Vegetables%22,%22Women%22,%22@PortraitSlim@%22,%22%22,%22AA5555%22))

***

24:49 – FX chopping wood over images 148 to 25:00

148a. Rural Scene by Louis Maurer – 1856 commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Louis_Maurer_Preparing_fo…

148b. A patent of nobility by David Hunter Strother –
Harper’s July 1866 – babel.hathitrust.org
p. 139
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090353&vie…

149. The Sower by Jean-François Millet – 1850 Museum of Fine Arts – Gift of Quincy Adams Shaw through Quincy Adams Shaw, Jr., and Mrs. Marian Shaw Haughton
mfa.org
collections.mfa.org/objects/31601

***

25:14 – FX barking dog over image 150 to 25:18

150a. Cider_Colonial-Press_Retouched
eastfallshouse.com
www.eastfallshouse.com/update-party-goes-hard-core/

150b. Campfire
artofmanliness.com
www.artofmanliness.com/articles/three-essential-campfires…

150c. apple in palm of dark hand
indigoculturalcenter.org
indigoculturalcenter.org/racial-equity-training-and-consu…

***

25:18 – squealing hogs over image 151 to 25:26.

151a. Catching Hogs by David Hunter Strother 1857 – West Virginia and Regional History Center accession number (W1995.030.004)
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

151b. Smoked Ham at the Bonnie Crest Inn, North Carolina by William Aiken Walker – 1886
wahooart.com
en.wahooart.com/@@/8DP9RF-William%20Aiken%20Walker-Smoked…

152b. (center) “JENNY . . .A GOOD SPINSTER”
inthewordsofwomen.com
inthewordsofwomen.com/?cat=96

152a. winding yarn by David H. Strother, Harper’s (Aug., 1856)
p. 309
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056089801&vie…

152c. Lock’s Old Stephen. by D.H. Strother – 1845. Martinsburg Va. (P.95.30.391pg19)
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series

297. CF3
Gift Ideas
Image by Jim Surkamp
VIDEO: The Bower and its Families Part 3
www.youtube.com/watch?v=GE_ou8Ylyc8

POST: The Bower and its Families Part 3 (beginning to 3.23 in the video)
civilwarscholars.com/2021/02/the-bower-and-its-families-p…

The Bower and its Families Part 2 (with bibliography)

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu). This video and all videos in this channel as well as the million words of posts at the corresponding source, civilwarscholars.com – are intended to encourage fact-based discussion to heighten better understanding of the foundational events of our country. Sentiments included in these productions, even if commendable, do not in any way reflect the 21st century policies of the University.

This is the third of about four videos.

I am working with Charles Fox, whose family descended from the remarkable John H. Fox, the owner/operator of three different farms and community leader, revered upon his death and who was born enslaved at the Bower.

I was absorbed in the question of how could and why did those enslaved sang,laughed and danced and even stayed up without sleeping and still working long days in the fields. And yes it is true as a consistent fact of life in Virginia in the early 19th century. I found the same observations in five different diaries in this immediate region. And I came to realize a great truth in this fact which will be explored in the third video. We have been served terribly with descriptions of enslaved peersons as being "child-like and pathetic" ignoring the obvious reality that they received their almost superhuman strength coming from their faith and African musical tradition. That African Americans routinely become the best in any athletic field they enter and the worldwide influence of their musical talents – gospel blues swing jazz motown etc. just underscore these earlier daily practices so long ago.

Glamorous and famous for its visitors (Washington Irving, Robert E. Lee, Jeb Stuart’s entire staff lived there for a month), the pre-Civil War owners practiced people-owning on a large scale – usually about sixty enslaved persons who kept up production there from day to day. A close reading of daily accounts reveals just how much the deepest, knowledge of hunting, cooking, horses etc resided in the most experienced persons of color.

It became famous as the place John Pendleton Kennedy, a relative from Baltimore who also supported Edgar Allan Poe, based his widely read book: "Swallow Barn: A Sojourn in the Old Dominion," that was published in 1832 and 1850.

It was a divided family, with regard to the Civil War, with author Kennedy opposing secession, the Dandridges at the Bower strongly supporting, or as Philip Kennedy put it – Adam Dandridge ate a strong "allowance of the insane root" to quote from Macbeth.

It might include a tragic love story. When John Fox was born in 1845 Adam Stephen Dandridge II was the only adult white male at The Bower.

It circles around Adam Dandridge II and Charles Fox’s great great grandmother "Mary" who was killed at the Bower.

It also follows the incredibly impressive John Fox, one of Mary’s five surviving children and culminates with Charles Fox’s powerfully impressive, of-the-earth, wisdom-dispensing grandfather, Charles Washington Fox.

We’ll leave it at that.

Care is taken to stay consistent with all information in official records (death certificates, Census, marriage records, deeds, and wills) in addition to the Fox family oral tradition, first transmitted by John Fox, with his eye-witness knowledge.

BEGIN

CF 3 0 .54

***

00: – Michael Praetorius: Dances from Terpsichore, Courante
Voices of Music over images 1-7 to :54 – youtube.com

Michael Praetorius: Dances from Terpsichore, Courante
Voices of Music
Hanneke van Proosdij and David Tayler
Directors
Musicians (left to right)
Carla Moore, Gabrielle Wunsch, Lisa Grodin and
Maxine Nemerovski, baroque violins
Maria Caswell, baroque viola
Peter Maund, riqq
Elisabeth Reed and Tanya Tomkins, baroque cellos
Farley Pearce, violone
Hanneke van Proosdij, harpsichord
David Tayler, archlute & percussion
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=yoGvKFSvs0o

1.

Two Women with Head-Ties, Jamaica, 1808-1815 – loc.gov
web4.encyclopediavirginia.org
web4.encyclopediavirginia.org/slave_images/Slavery/detail…

2.
Robert Greenhow Jr., ca. 1808, Charles B. J. Févret de Saint-Mémin (French, 1770 – 1852), pastel and crayon on toned paper, 18 3/8 x 14 in. (47.9 x 35.6 cm.). Gift of Mrs. William R. Scott 98.3.3/3
vmfa.museum
www.vmfa.museum/tours/audio-tours/web-tour-friend-heart-c…

3
Man Smoking a Pipe, ca. 1800-1825
slaveryimages.org
www.slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/1480/mirador

4.
Mrs. Robert Greenhow Sr. (Mary Ann Willis), ca. 1808, Charles B. J. Févret de Saint-Mémin, (French, 1770 – 1852), pastel and crayon on toned paper, 19 5/8 x 13 7/8 in. (49.8 x 35.3 cm. ). Gift of Mrs. William R. Scott 98.3.1/3
vmfa.museum
www.vmfa.museum/tours/audio-tours/web-tour-friend-heart-c…

5. Tangerian Girl by José Tapiro y Baro – 1891. Dahesh Museum of Art in New York
arthistoryproject.com
arthistoryproject.com/artists/jose-tapiro-y-baro/tangeria…

6.
Robert Greenhow Sr., ca. 1808, Charles B. J. Févret de Saint-Mémin (French, 1770 – 1852), pastel and crayon on toned paper, 19 5/8 x 14 1/8 in. (48.8 x 35.9 cm.). Gift of Mrs. William R. Scott 98.3.2/3
vmfa.museum
www.vmfa.museum/tours/audio-tours/web-tour-friend-heart-c…

7.
Absalam by SANTIAGO ARCOS Y MEGALDE
bonhams.com
www.bonhams.com/auctions/23917/lot/10/?category=results

CF3 .54 1.39 Images

***

8. Title

9. Bower aerial
Google Maps
google.com/maps
www.google.com/maps/@39.3664719,-77.9554242,1762m/data=!3…

10. rear exit The Bower taken by Edwin Fitzpatrick
Jefferson County Historical Society (1991). "Between the Shenandoah & the Potomac."
Charles Town, WV: self-published. p. ADD

11. brief moving dresses no sound – Gone With the Wind (fair use)

12. Portrait of Adam Stephen Dandridge, Sr. (1782-1821) by Charles Peale Polk 1799-1800
emuseum.history.org
emuseum.history.org/objects/28061/portrait-of-adam-stephe…

13. same as 11

14. Portrait of Sarah Pendleton Dandridge (Mrs. Adam Stephen Dandridge, Sr.)(1785-1855)
by James W. Macoughtry, Jr. 1831
emuseum.history.org
emuseum.history.org/objects/42669/portrait-of-sarah-pendl…

15. The first quadrille at Almack’s From Recollections of Captain Gronow (1850)
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/363313894910535906/

16. The "Trenis" Quadrille, Plate 19 from "Le Bon Genre," 1805
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/427349452145394118/

17. swirling dress
Gone With tHe Wind fair use and

18. Figure 11. A German Cotillion, Vienna, c.1825. From Scenes du Bal by Charles Henry.
regencydances.org
www.regencydances.org/paper011.php

19. Object: Le baiser deviné; Series: Le Bon Genre – 1812
britishmuseum.org
www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1866-0407-902

***

1:41 – Summer Nights from Desert Winds produced by Shana Aisenberg over images 20-26 to 3:23
2:22 – FX carriages, hooves, horses over images 24-26 to 3:23
2:24 – FX Owl frogs autumn over images 24-25 to 3:01

20. Spider’s web in the sun

21. James Kirke Paulding
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JKPaulding.jpg
& history.navy.mil
www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-p/jk-pauld.htm
Author Government of the United States

22. Joseph of Egypt
frchriszugger.com
frchriszugger.com/2018/03/21/joseph-of-egypt-and-christ/

**
J. K. Paulding: I once knew a worthy old lady, who never saw or heard any thing in this World that did not put her in mind of Joseph in Egypt. Whenever any thing was told her, no matter what,

23. A pretty girl and an old woman both taking snuff. Coloured stipple engraving after L. Boilly, ca. 1827.
wellcomecollection.org INCLUDE Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
wellcomecollection.org/works/q6j67tvc

**
she would take a pinch of snuff, and exclaim with a devotional air, “Ah! that puts me in mind of Joseph in Egypt.” Nobody could tell why; but so it was

*
Paulding, James Kirke. (1835). "Letters from the South By a Northern man."
New-York : Harper & brothers
p. 50 Vol 2
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112046404643&vi…

24. TITLE James Kirke Paulding in 1816, while heading north in the Shenandoah Valley
to Martinsburg:

25. Shenandoah Valley by William Louis Sonntag, Sr. 1859–1860Virginia Historical Society
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shenandoah_Valley_William…

**

In traversing this mountain region, one of the first things that struck me was the solemn, severe silence which prevailed every where, and only broken at distant intervals, by the note of the cock of the woods; the chirping of a ground squirrel; the crash of a falling tree, or the long echoes of the fowler’s gun, which render the silence, thus broken in upon for a moment, still more striking.

p. 116 vol 1
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112046404387&vi…

26. Drawing by Garth Williams, 1953 version of Little House in the Big Woods, pg. 123
silverhomestead.com
silverhomestead.com/how-to-make-brown-sugar/

**

In many places the only traces of human agency are the incisions of the sugar maple, and the little troughs at the foot of the tree turned upside down, to wait the flowing of the sap in the spring.

Paulding Vol. 1 p. 118
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112046404387&vi…

CF 3 3.23 5.32

***

3:23 – FX hum of voices over images 27-30 to 5:32

*

Begins

Paulding, James Kirke. (1817) "Letters from the South, written during an excursion in the summer of 1816." New York, Published by James Eastburn & co.

pp. 117-131

p. 121
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/121/mode/1up

**

27. James Kirke Paulding
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JKPaulding.jpg
& history.navy.mil
www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-p/jk-pauld.htm
Author Government of the United States

At one of the taverns along the road, we were set down in the same room with a man, who was

28.
Eugène Pelletan by Nadar 1855–59 – Purchase, The Howard Gilman Foundation Gift and Rogers Fund,
metmuseum.org/
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/266480

**

an ill-looking, hard-featured, pock-marked, fellow. He was going, it seems, to Richmond.

WARNING DISTURBING ACCOUNTS OF EXTREME CRUELTY

All along the road, I made it his business to inquire where lived a man who might perhaps be tempted to sell him his slaves and when I got some half a dozen of them, I tied their hands behind their backs, and drove them three or four hundred miles, or more, bare-headed, and half naked, I gave out that they were runaway slaves I was carrying home to their masters.

On one occasion a black woman exposed this fallacy, and told the story of her being kidnapped; and (123) when I got her into a wood out of hearing, I beat her, till her back was white."

I married all the men and women I bought, because they would sell better for being man and wife !

"For many is the time I have separated wives from husbands, and husbands from wives, and parents from children ;

but then I made them amends by marrying them again as soon as I had a chance

I made one bad purchase, though," I bought a young mulatto girl, a lovely creature, — a great bargain. She had been the favourite of her master, who had lately married.

The difficulty was, to get her to go ; for she loved her master.

However, I swore most bitterly I was only going to take her to her mother at , and she went with me; though she seemed to doubt me very much.

But when she discovered at last that we were out of the State, I thought she would go mad ; and, in fact, the next night, drowned herself in the river close by.

I lost a good five hundred dollars by this foolish trick,

p. 121
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/121/mode/1up

29. James Kirke Paulding
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JKPaulding.jpg
& history.navy.mil
www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-p/jk-pauld.htm
Author Government of the United States

**
page 120

it is seldom we see the ties of kindred or of conjugal affection, stronger than in the poor negro. He will travel twelre, fifteen, or twenty miles, to see his wife and children, after his daily

30. by Miguel Ângelo Lupi 1879. This is a couple of former slaves that accompained a portuguese aristocrat, Serpa Pinto, in his voyages through Africa
pinterest.es
www.pinterest.es/pin/443886107023349726/

page 121

labour is over, and return in the morning to his labour again. If he obtains his liberty, he will often devote the first years of his liberty to buying their freedom; — thus setting an example of conjugal and parental affection, which the white man may indeed admire ; but, it is feared, would seldom imitate.

pp. 120-121
archive.org
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/120/mode/1up

Paulding, James Kirke. (1817) "Letters from the South, written during an excursion in the summer of 1816." New York, Published by James Eastburn & co.

pp. 117-131

CF3 5.32 7.18

***

Gourd Banjo and Hambone on a Mississippi Porch
Markus James – gourd banjo
Calvin Jackson – hambone

From the album "Head For The Hills" by Markus James;
As heard in the HBO film "The Immortal Life Of Henrietta Lacks" featuring Oprah Winfrey
www.facebook.com/markusjamesm...

youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTKE3IaVVmA

Images 31, 32 and 34-38
The Old Plantation attributed to John Rose
Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Williamsburg, Virginia
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Old_Plantation#/media/File:Slav…

33. Bower Farm Leetown WV – Jim Surkamp

39. The Highest Bidder by Harry Roseland
encore-editions.com
www.encore-editions.com/to-the-highest-bidder-by-harry-ro…

40.The Power of Music by Wm Sidney Mount – 1847
theimaginativeconservative.org
theimaginativeconservative.org/2018/11/images-america-wil…

41. "Aunt Lucy" Hermitage – 1915
Essie Collins Matthews, Aunt Phebe, Uncle Tom and Others: Character Studies Among the Old Slaves of the South, Fifty Years After: illustrated from photographs made by the author in the cabins and on the plantations (Columbus, Ohio, 1915)
slaveryimages.org
slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/1553
Aunt Phebe, Uncle Tom and Other, p. 104

42. Man with axe
Kennedy, John Pendleton, (1856) "Swallow barn, or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion." New York, G.P. Putnam & Company.
p. 404
hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433076089170&vie…

43a. Head of a Black man by Eastman Johnson – 1868
wikiart.org
www.wikiart.org/en/eastman-johnson/head-of-a-black-man-1868

43b. Frank Wagoner by D.H. Strother Harpers Feb. 1855, p. 300
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090080&vie…

44. The Banjo Player by Wm Sidney Mount – 1856
theimaginativeconservative.org
theimaginativeconservative.org/2018/11/images-america-wil…

45. Swallow Barn man with pipe
Kennedy, John Pendleton, (1856) "Swallow barn, or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion." New York, G.P. Putnam & Company.
p. 448
hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433076089170&vie…

46a. Bill Napper by D.H. Strother 1845
P.95.30.391pg13
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

46b. detail The Power of Music by Wm Sidney Mount – 1847
theimaginativeconservative.org
theimaginativeconservative.org/2018/11/images-america-wil…

47a. “A Swedish Gentleman instructing a Negro Prince” by Carl Fredric von Breda – 1789
Karolina Kristensson, © Nordiska museet
digitaltmuseum.se
digitaltmuseum.se/011023459953/tavla

47b. cook by D.H. Strother Harpers Jan. 1856 p. 177
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090064&vie…

47c. Antique Martinique Merchant
www.picclick.com
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/463589355373107433/

48. Shell Mound Station by D.H. Strother
P.95.30.393pg4a
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

SOURCES of given persons: names in this chapter:

First Section
Pinco – from account book of A.S.Dandridge II – Jefferson County Museum & The Mighty Myth of the Happy Plantation at civilwarscholars.com;
Carey (Swallow Barn);
Cate, Eliza, Serina, Anne and Mary (wills of Adam Stephen and his daughter, Anne Stephen Hunter),

Second Section – Source of persons’ names in the montage

Walter Dean Myers, who was born in Martinsburg, descended from the Dennis family who worked at The Bower and has become a respected author, wrote this in his book, “Now Is Your Time”:

“In 1849, Adam Stephen Dandridge II lived at The Bower and ran the plantation. His brother Philip lived nearby. When Philip needed to secure his loans, he put up part of his inheritance, which consisted of part of the Bower lands and his Africans:

‘The following slaves, the property of the said Philip P. Dandridge, now in his possession in Jefferson County, or in the custody of Dr. Gellot Hollingsworth and Samuel Hollingsworth, in the State of Louisiana, together with the increase (children) of said slaves – vis; Cato, Henny, George, Robert, John, Daniel, James, Simon, Peter, Tina, Caroline, Leah, Mary Ann and her children, Rachael, Ann, Louisa & children, Frances, Margaret, Patty, including all of the slaves of the said Philip P. Dandridge, whether named or not. . . to secure a debt of said P. P. Dandridge’ – (Myers, P. 99)

The Mighty Myth of the Happy Plantation

civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/sample-post/

interview 2002 with Jim Surkamp

civilwarscholars.com

***

7:20 – Shana Aisenberg on banjo with accompaniment over images 49

49. "Mary" semblance
David Hunter Strother, Sketches of “contrabands,” enslaved African Americans who crossed into the federal lines, 1862. Courtesy of the Library of Virginia.
southernspaces.org
southernspaces.org/2010/retelling-virginias-migration-his…

**
I got this from Uncle Dewey because he spoke for black history month down here. He said that somebody told the mistress there was four little foxes down there looking out the window: She got the market basket and went down ‘thought he was talking about animals.
And they were these Negro children. So of course she told the master. So he said: ‘Well just bring ‘em on up here and he put ‘em in the kitchen. And he said they would take a tub, like a foot tub, put bread in it, and milk, pour it in there and they ate with the cats and dogs under the kitchen table.

But by being at the big house, they learned to talk. They learned to read. They just learned things. When you’re ’round, you pick up – he was not back there in the field somewhere.

So, one of ’em became a preacher. One of ’em became a cook. And that one I think – we would say – like a butler. He was ssomething like – if you saw "Roots" – he was like Chicken John. And as I said, the girl, they lost trace of her. Steve went to Ohio. So they lost trace of him. And farmer John, see, he bought the oxen and he cut lumber. He was known as a lumber jacket.

And if you would read the history of St. Paul’s Church, it was John Fox – that’s my grandfather – It was George Johnson – grandfather on my mother’s side, a Carter and I think three other men – bought that piece of land where that church is. They paid for it. An’ lot of the lumber in the church John Fox gave.

50. Bertha Jones, Jefferson Co. NAACP Executive Committee
jeffcomuseumwv.pastperfectonline.com
jeffcomuseumwv.pastperfectonline.com/archive/75847923-F4F…

51. Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Winslow_Homer_-_Sunday_Mo…

52a. A patent of nobility by D. H. Strother Harpers July, 1866 p. 139
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090353&vie…

52b
Benjamin Fox
findagrave.com
www.findagrave.com/memorial/190534275/benjamin-f-fox

53.
Humphery black child on horseback by D.H. Strother
P.95.30.390pg13
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

54.
Mary Kindling the fire by D.H. Strother Harpers Aug, 1855 p. 295
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090072&vie…

55.
Steve Aunt Winnie by D.F. Strother Harper’s Aug, 1856 p. 310
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056089801&vie…

56. Bower field and horse by Jim Surkamp

57a.
(John Fox semblance) African American boy sitting by D. H. Strother – 1864
P.95.30.345
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

57b. John Henry Fox – courtesy Charles Fox

58
St. Paul’s Baptist Church
Kearneysville, WV
google.com/maps
www.google.com/maps/uv?pb=!1s0x89c9ffadeda3091b%3A0x5c698…

later

"Baltimore" tea et by D.H. Strother 1860
P.95.30.27
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

The Wood-pile by D.F. Strother Harper’s Aug, 1856 p. 316
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056089801&vie…
for litle potatoe segment

CF 3 9:48 12.14

***
9:48 – hum over images 59-60 to 10:07
Skip James- Hard Time Killin’ Floor Blues
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNftrsCMiQs

59. Bower field and horse – Jim Surkamp

60. TITLE

**
In 1754, the New Light Baptists, led by Shubal Stearns, came down from Connecticut, crossed into Virginia at the Opequon & clashed head-on with the Episcopal Church – the State religion.

10:08 – "Deliver" New Light Baptist Church of Pittsburgh over images 61-80 to 12:16

starts at 1:52-5:09
New Light Temple Baptist Church (Pittsburgh, PA) Jubilee Choir 1997
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=StiBu3Dla74

61 TITLE

**
The children of Africa down through the Shenandoah Valley got it at once. They had every day sung and beat the beat for thousands of years.

62. TITLE

**

On farms and plantations, they inhabited their Inner Kingdom and together invented and sang out Truth in the Lion’s den. But using these newly learned Biblical stories, they confounded the Lion.

63-80 New Light Temple Baptist Church (Pittsburgh, PA) Jubilee Choir 1997

CF3 12.16 17.00

SOURCES:

"THE COLORED TROOPS AT PETERSBURG" by GEN. HENRY GODDARD THOMAS. in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Vol. 4. New York: The Century Co.pp. 563-568

CHAPTER 22 – Manassas: The Men Become One by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com
civilwarscholars.com/2017/03/story-22-manassas-the-men-be…

CHAPTER 22: Manassas Camp – The Men Become One (from Jasper Tjhompson’s Destiny Day)
youtube.com
youtu.be/KSXoj0c5My4#t=2h49m57s
***

hum over images 59-60 to 10:07
Skip James- Hard Time Killin’ Floor Blues
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNftrsCMiQs

**
81. TITLE
At any quiet moment together, one might test a tune and sing it into the silence. And the others "study" it, some adding a harmony, or the first person would make the tune or beat better. Others might join. Then more might. And a mountain would
begin to move, lifting hearts.

TITLES:

82. WITH THE U.S. COLORED TROOPS

83. 23RD INFANTRY REGIMENT

84. ON THE EVE OF THE BATTLE OF THE CRATER JULY 30, 1864

85. "STUDY-ING"

***

12:56 – Soldier Song by Shana Aisenberg over images 85-92 to 13:35
13:35 – guitar by Shana Aisenberg over images 92-102 to 15:15
15:15 over images 102-104 to 17:10

86, 87, 88
[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing] taken by E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm) – [New York City : E. & H.T. Anthony Co., photographed between 1862 and 1865, printed later]
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/98500957/

**
Robert K. Beecham, James Douglas, Voghl Foster, George Kellum, John H. Simms, George W. Taylor, Uriah Perry, Perry Smith, James Smith, William H. Chandler,

**
Adam C. Liscomb, Charles Walker, Henry Yates, George H. Briscoe, Peter Churchwell, Zelotis Fessenden, Noble A. Stewart, John W. Thomas, Francis Tucker, Abraham Tuxon, Basil Tyler, Richard Saunders, Alexander Savoy

89.
Musical notation of Soldier Song by Maj. Gen. Henry Thomas
p. 564
archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof04cent#page/564/mode/1up

90. Head of a Man (Ira Frederick Aldridge) by John P. Simpson
tate.org.uk
www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/simpson-head-of-a-man-ira-fr…

dual
91. Maj. Gen Henry Thomas
p. 565
archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof04cent#page/565/mode/1up

92.
Drawing by Ward S. Day, 5th New York, Company C

93.
News from home by Edwin Forbes – Sept. 30, 1863
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.20648/

**

Strolling often around the camp their commander Henry G. Thomas observed later:

Any striking event or piece of news was usually eagerly discussed by the white troops, and in the ranks military critics were as plenty and perhaps more voluble than among the officers.

94. & 95.
[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing] taken by E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm) – [New York City : E. & H.T. Anthony Co., photographed between 1862 and 1865, printed later]
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/98500957/

Not so with the blacks; important news was usually followed by long silence. They sat about in groups, “studying,” as they called it. They waited, like the Quakers, for the spirit to move; when the spirit moved,

96.
Head of a Man (Ira Frederick Aldridge) by John P. Simpson
tate.org.uk
www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/simpson-head-of-a-man-ira-fr…

one of their singers would uplift a mighty voice, like a bard of old, in a wild sort of chant. If he did not strike a sympathetic chord in his hearers,

97 & 98
[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing] taken by E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm) – [New York City : E. & H.T. Anthony Co., photographed between 1862 and 1865, printed later]
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/98500957/

if they did not find in his utterance the exponent of their idea, he would sing it again and again, altering sometimes the words, more often the music. If his changes met general acceptance, one voice after another would chime in; a rough harmony of three parts would add itself;

99. 26th United States Colored Volunteer Inf. at Camp William Penn, 1865
archives.gov
www.archives.gov/files/research/military/civil-war/photos…

other groups would join his, and the song would become the song of the command.

100.
Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

**

One evening Thomas saw this act of creation and wrote down its core.

The joyous guffaw always breaking out about the camp-fire ceased. They formed circles in their company streets and were sitting on the ground intently and solemnly “studying.” At last a heavy voice began to sing,

“We-e looks li-ike we-en a-a-marchin’ on, We looks li-ike men-er-war.”

dual
101
Head of a Man (Ira Frederick Aldridge) by John P. Simpson
tate.org.uk
www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/simpson-head-of-a-man-ira-fr…

102
Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

Over and over again he sang it, making slight changes in the melody. The rest listened to him intently; no sign of approval or disapproval escaped their lips or appeared on their faces. All at once, when his refrain had struck the right response in their hearts, his group took it up, and shortly half a thousand voices were upraised extemporizing a half dissonant middle part and bass. It was a picturesque scene these dark men, with their white eyes and teeth and full red lips, crouching over a smoldering camp-fire, in dusky shadow, with only the feeble rays of the lanterns of the first sergeants and the lights of the candles dimly showing through the tents. The sound was as weird as the scene, when all the voices struck the low E (last note but one), held it, and then rose to A with a portamento as sonorous as it was clumsy. Until we fought the battle of the crater they sang this every night to the exclusion of all other songs.- Battles & Leaders V. 4
archive.org pp. 563-564

archive.org
archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof04cent#page/563/mode/1up
pp. 563-564

103. TITLE
www.storey.com/article/hello-darkness/

**
Songs and laughter heal aching hearts, weary bones

104. Full moon
naturalnavigator.com
www.naturalnavigator.com/news/2019/10/how-to-tell-if-you-…

CF3 17.11 22.45

***

17:11 FX owls, frogs/frog chorus/summer night ambience insects, crickets over images 104-
109 to 17:43

104. full moon
naturalnavigator.com
www.naturalnavigator.com/news/2019/10/how-to-tell-if-you-…

**
TITLES

105.
3 AM July 23rd 1850, a full moon

106.
"The Quarter" of A.S. Dandridge – Leetown, then Va.

107.
The morning of the wheat harvest . . .

***

17:27 – hambone and gourd banjo over images 108-118 to 19:10
From the album "Head For The Hills" by Markus James
Markus James – gourd banjo
Calvin Jackson – hambone
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTKE3IaVVmA

17:33 black laughing over images 108-111 to 17:58
Black People Laughing | Try Not To Laugh Challenge
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCq_D-vGueM&t=194s

108.
As usual, cabins in the Quarter vibrated most of the night with song, dance, and laughter around their fires.

109.
Traveling diarists across Virginia reported for decades that the black workers were incredibly fit, slept little,

***

17:44 – FX fire burning, wood crackle over images 110-118 to 19:10

TITLE
**
sharing the wee hours in a joyous, private world.
montage

110. Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112
clockwise begin lower vieer’s right"

110a. & 110b.
Negro Life at the South by Eastman Johnson – 1859 New-York Historical Society, The Robert L. Stuart Collection
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negro_Life_at_the_South#/media/File…
110b. Kitchen at Mount Vernon by Eastman Johnson – 1864 – Mount Vernon
emuseum.mountvernon.org
emuseum.mountvernon.org/objects/6118/kitchen-at-mount-ver…

110c. Dinah by Eastman Johnson – 1867 Gibbes Museum of Art
npg.si.edu
npg.si.edu/object/npg_2006.007_Gibbes

110d., 110e., 110f. Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
Plantation Dance ring shout (3 still images)
mhenrystl Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQgrIcCtys0

110g. Four Studies of the Head of a Negro by Peter Paul Rubens – 1615 Royal Museum of Fine Arts of Belgium
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

110h. Uncle Tom and Little Eva by Edwin Long 1866 – Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edwin_Longsden_Long_-_Unc…

110i. Head of a Moor by Peter Paul Rubens – 1620 – Hyde Collection
uir.unisa.ac.za
uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/19126/Van%20Haute_…

110j. Negro Life at the South by Eastman Johnson – 1859 New-York Historical Society, The Robert L. Stuart Collection
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negro_Life_at_the_South#/media/File…

***

17:53 – frying bacon over image 111 to 18:16

TITLE
** We’re bakin’ cakes for the ‘morrow
111. Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

TITLE
** "Mush Cake" "Corn Cake" lard + cornmeal + water salt
112. Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

113. (Same as 110)
begin Bayard

**
At four o’clock in the morning smoke was still rising from the huts of the negroes. They have fire during the entire night, and in the hottest season. Often, instead of sleeping, they smoke, sing or converse, without that loss of sleep affecting them.

114. Dance in Congo Square in the late 18th century, artist’s conception by E. W. Kemble from a century later
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congo_Square#/media/File:Dancing_in…

**
Almost all of them, after a night devoted to pleasure, can take up their labor without

115. Carolus-Duran, l’homme endormi, 1861, hst
Musée des beaux-arts de Lille visite du 3 juin 2009 © gaelle kermen 2009
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/497929302535845386/

**
experiencing that weariness that a white man would feel who had been deprived of his rest.

*
CHAPTER XXVII
at four o’clock in the morning smoke was still rising from the huts of the negroes
They have fire during the entire night, and in the hottest season. Often, instead of sleeping, they smoke, sing or converse, without that loss of sleep affecting them. Almost all of them, after a night devoted to pleasure, can take up their labor without experiencing that weariness that a white man would feel who had been deprived of his rest.

Bayard, Ferdinand Marie, (1950). "Travels of a Frenchman in Maryland and Virginia,
with a description of Philadelphia and Baltimore, in 1791: or, Travels in the interior of the United States, to Bath, Winchester, in the valley of the Shenandoah, etc., etc., during the summer of 1791." Translated by Ben C. McCary. An Arbor, MU: Edwards Brothers.
catalog.hathitrust.org
catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001263616

*
MORE
CHAPTER XXVII

I set out at four o’clock in the morning in order to be able to be on the mountains before the sun was too high. A light fog cov ered the valley like a transparent veil, and through which appeared the tree tops, the houses of the planters, as well as the huts of the Negroes, from which smoke was still rising. The slaves have fire during the entire night, and in the hottest season. Often, instead of sleeping, they smoke, sing or converse, without that loss of sleep affecting them. Almost all of them, after a night devoted to pleas ure, can take up their labor without experiencing that weariness that a white man would feel who had been deprived of his rest.

I found the squirrels wide awake. They were climbing with agility in the largest oaks, taking the precaution to keep the entire thickness of the body of the tree between them and me, whom they looked at from time to time to be sure that I had not gone round their file leader. The instinct of self preservation no doubt sug gested to them that precaution which presents the greatest obsta cles to the hunter; but all that ruse does not preserve them from the shot of the enemy; it has made him only more skillful.

In the regions where, as in the Shenandoah Valley, squirrels are very numerous, they are hunted without dogs; but if you want to kill a great number of them, you must get up early in the morn ing and wait for them to return from their nightly wanderings.

There are three species of squirrels, the first differs from the one we know in France only in that it is smaller, and the Amer icans call the members of this group Fox-Squirrel; the second, smaller, has grey fur; the third still smaller, but of the same color, is that of the flying squirrels: the latter have two mem branes which they spread out when they spring from one tree to another. The flesh of the grey squirrels is white and tender: they are roasted and seasoned with cream sauce: the furriers buy their skins.

p. 96
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027057820&vie…
END MORE

Over images 116-117
**
I never meet a man — unless he is quite old — that he is not whistling ; and the women sing from morning till night. And as to dancing, the hardest day’s work does not restrain their desire to indulge in such pastime.
Swallow Barn pp. 454
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=plaint…

116. The Old Plantation. Courtesy of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, Va.
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Old_Plantation#/media/File:Slav…

**
I never met a negro man — unless he is quite old — that he is not whistling;

117. Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
Plantation Dance ring shout – youtube.com

**
and the women sing from morning till night.

118. Self-Portrait by Eastman Johnson 1865 – Brooklyn Museum
brooklynmuseum.org
www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/2234

**
And as to dancing, the hardest day’s work does not restrain their desire to indulge in such pastime.

***

19:10 – FX cockrell crow over image 119 to 19:12

**
They are great sportsmen, too.

**
They angle and haul the seine, and hunt and tend their traps, with a zest that never grows weary.

**
Their gayety of heart is constitutional and perennial, and when they are together they are as voluble and noisy. birds. In short, I think them the most good-natured, and happily-constructed human beings I have ever seen.

Swallow Barn
pp. 454-455
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=1up&am…

**
During the harvest, when their toil is pushed to its utmost, they dance almost the whole night. – Swallow Barn pp. 454-455

119. sunrise over wheat field
wallpaperflare.com
www.wallpaperflare.com/earth-field-sun-sunbeam-sunrise-wh…

***

19:14 – scythe cutting wheat over images 120-121 to 19:27

120. Men Harvesting Grain with Scythes
wisconsinhistory.org
www.wisconsinhistory.org/Records/Image/IM59541

121. John Pendleton Kennedy, C.1825
by Philip Tilyard
art.com
www.art.com/products/p38298748725-sa-i9815433/philip-tily…

**
JPK – wrote of life at The Bower that I know well. I have seen that they are also great sportsmen, too.

122. Mending the Net 1882 by Thomas Eakins
poulwebb.blogspot.com
1882 Mending the Net
watercolour

**
They angle and haul the seine, and hunt and tend their traps,

***

19:37 – Shana Aisenberg banjo over images 123-128

123. possum
Swallow Barn p. 405 babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=1up&am…

**
with a zest that never grows weary.

124. The Dancing Boy – 1878 by Thomas Eakins
poulwebb.blogspot.com
poulwebb.blogspot.com/2012/07/thomas-eakins-part-2.html

**
Their gaiety of heart is constitutional and perennial, and when they are together they are voluble and noisy. In short, I think them the most good-natured, and happily-constructed human beings I have ever seen.

125. Uncle Tom and Little Eva by Edwin Longsden Long – 1866 Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum, Bournemouth
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncle_Tom_and_Little_Eva_(painting)

END JPK QUOTE
INSERT PAULING
DEAR FRANK,

126.
The Banjo Lesson 1893 by Henry Ossawa Tanner
wikiart.org
www.wikiart.org/en/henry-ossawa-tanner/the-banjo-lesson-1893

Over images 126-133
**
They are by far the most musical of any portion of the inhabitants of the United States, and in the evening I have seen them reclining in their boats on the canal at Richmond, playing on the banjo, and singing in a style — I dare say, equal to a Venetian Gondolier.

Then they whistle as clear as the notes of the fife and their laugh is the very echo of hilarity.

Paulding, James Kirke. (1817) "Letters from the South, written during an excursion in the summer of 1816." New York, Published by James Eastburn & co.
p. 118
archive.org
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/118/mode/1up

**

They are by far the most musical of any portion of the inhabitants of the United States, and in the evening I have seen them playing on the banjo, and singing in a style — I dare say, equal to a Venetian Gondolier.

127. African American man singing
New Light Temple Baptist Church (Pittsburgh, PA) Jubilee Choir 1997 – youtube.com

20:08 over image 128 to 20:15
The Best Singing Gondolier at the Venetian, Las Vegas – Tino!
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCrsWf2x5cA

128. Venetian
ethnicepicurenyc.com
www.ethnicepicurenyc.com/culture-performances/2017/2/2/it…

129. James Kirke Paulding

**
Then they whistle as clear as the notes of the fife ;

***

20:20 – fife by Kellerman and whistle by Bobbe McFerren over images 130-131 to 20:58

130.
Irish Hornpipes – Wouter Kellerman on Fife – The Live Sessions (Part 1)
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q4Ak4FynFYE

131
DontWorryBeHappy #Vevo
Bobby McFerrin – Don’t Worry Be Happy (Official Video)
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=d-diB65scQU

***

20:58 – people laughing over images 132-133 to 21:19
Black People Laughing | Try Not To Laugh Challenge
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCq_D-vGueM&t=194s

132. James Kirke Paulding

**
and their laugh is the very echo of hilarity.

133. Four Studies of the Head of a Negro (black) by Peter Paul Rubens
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

***

21:25 – Shana Aisenberg banjo over images 133-141 to 22:35

**

and their laugh is the very echo of hilarity.

END PAULDING

**
He will make himself happy in the traps that have been laid for him; he will roll in their nets and sleep. All doors will fly open to him

134. Jacob Jordaens, Study of a Black Man’s Head (ca. 1620). Medium and size unknown. Formerly New York, Estate of Jacob Goldschmidt; present location unknown
OTHER SOURCE OF ART AFRICAN
Black tronies in seventeenth-centur y Flemish ar t and the African presence
uir.unisa.ac.za
uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/19126/Van%20Haute_…

**

who has a mildness more defiant than mere courage.

135. Barroom Dancing by John Lewis Krimmel – 1828 –
Library of Congress – commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Barroom_Dancing_by_John_L…

**

He will be always "taken in." To be taken in everywhere is to see

136. The Banjo Lesson 1893 by Henry Ossawa Tannerwikiart.org
wikiart.org
www.wikiart.org/en/henry-ossawa-tanner/the-banjo-lesson-1893

**
the inside of everything.

SOURCE on the greenhorn
G.K. Chesterton Pick Papers notes
gkc.org.uk
www.gkc.org.uk/gkc/books/CD-1.html#IV

137. Thoughts of Liberia – Emancipation by Edward White 1861 – New York Historical Society
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_White#/media/File:’Thoughts_o…
137a. You sang
137b. away
137c. being owned

You sang away being owned

138. Four Studies of the Head of a Negro by Peter Paul Rubens
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

139 Four Studies of the Head of a Negro by Peter Paul Rubens
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

140 Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
Plantation Dance ring shout (3 still images)
mhenrystl Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQgrIcCtys0

141 full moon
naturalnavigator.com
www.naturalnavigator.com/news/2019/10/how-to-tell-if-you-…

JPK

Their fondness for music and dancing is a predominant passion. I never meet a negro man — unless he is quite old — that he is not whistling ; and the women sing from morning till night. And as to dancing, the hardest day’s work does not restrain their desire to indulge in such pastime. During the harvest, when their toil is pushed to its utmost — the time being one of recognized privileges — they dance almost the whole night. They are great sportsmen, too. They angle and haul the seine, and hunt and tend their traps, with a zest that never grows weary. Their gayety of heart is constitutional and perennial, and when they are together they are voluble and noisy. In short, I think them the most good-natured, careless, light-hearted, and happily-constructed human beings I have ever seen.
Swallow Barn pp. 454
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=plaint…

CF3 22.45 25.53

*
CHAPTER 11 – A Year’s Work in 1850 by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com
civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-11-a-years-work-in-1…

***

22:45 – FX sound of overseer’s tin trumpet over images 142 and 142a to 23:01
Slave Horn – A History of Kentucky in 25 Objects KET – Kentucky Educational Television
:31 sound
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOZgNrOPvu0

22:45 – FX full summer night sounds over images 142-142b to 23:07

142. Tin Horn 12 Years a Slave movie
142b.
www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOZgNrOPvu0

142a. Bower field and horse – Jim Surkamp

142b. Sunrise on wheat field

***

23:03 – FX sharpening scythes over images 142b and 143 to 23:15
23:14 – cutting wheat with scythes over image 143 to 23:55
23:22 – Rosie work song over image 143 to 23:59
Alan Lomax, Negro Prison & Blues Songs Rosie
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=fs1lgG81ZV8&list=PLcxxc3BIKvC…

143. Men Harvesting Grain with Scythes
wisconsinhistory.org
www.wisconsinhistory.org/Records/Image/IM59541

***

23:59 – Shana Aisenberg on mandolin over images 144-153 to 25:53.

144a. 1850 Poor Richard’s Almanac
archive.org
archive.org/stream/poorrichardsalm00frangoog#page/n18/mod…

144b. Farmers Nooning by William Sidney Mount – 1836
Long Island Museum (United States – Stony Brook, Long Island, New York)
artsandculture.google.com
artsandculture.google.com/asset/farmers-nooning-william-s…

***

24:09 – FX ravens over image 145 to 24:20

145. Stacking wheat by Edwin Forbes. – 1863 loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/2004661851/

146. Corn Husking by Eastman Johnson – 1860
Everson Museum of Art commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corn_Husking_by_Eastman_J…(1860).jpg

147. Charleston Vegetable Woman by William Aiken Walker
wahooart.com
en.wahooart.com/@@/8XX6CG-William-Aiken-Walker-Charleston…

See W.A. Walker en.wahooart.com/Art.nsf/Art_EN?Open&Complex&Query=(([Champ1]=%22William%20Aiken%20Walker%22)%20AND%20(%22Painting%22,%22Vegetables%22,%22Women%22,%22@PortraitSlim@%22,%22%22,%22AA5555%22))

***

24:49 – FX chopping wood over images 148 to 25:00

148a. Rural Scene by Louis Maurer – 1856 commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Louis_Maurer_Preparing_fo…

148b. A patent of nobility by David Hunter Strother –
Harper’s July 1866 – babel.hathitrust.org
p. 139
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090353&vie…

149. The Sower by Jean-François Millet – 1850 Museum of Fine Arts – Gift of Quincy Adams Shaw through Quincy Adams Shaw, Jr., and Mrs. Marian Shaw Haughton
mfa.org
collections.mfa.org/objects/31601

***

25:14 – FX barking dog over image 150 to 25:18

150a. Cider_Colonial-Press_Retouched
eastfallshouse.com
www.eastfallshouse.com/update-party-goes-hard-core/

150b. Campfire
artofmanliness.com
www.artofmanliness.com/articles/three-essential-campfires…

150c. apple in palm of dark hand
indigoculturalcenter.org
indigoculturalcenter.org/racial-equity-training-and-consu…

***

25:18 – squealing hogs over image 151 to 25:26.

151a. Catching Hogs by David Hunter Strother 1857 – West Virginia and Regional History Center accession number (W1995.030.004)
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

151b. Smoked Ham at the Bonnie Crest Inn, North Carolina by William Aiken Walker – 1886
wahooart.com
en.wahooart.com/@@/8DP9RF-William%20Aiken%20Walker-Smoked…

152b. (center) “JENNY . . .A GOOD SPINSTER”
inthewordsofwomen.com
inthewordsofwomen.com/?cat=96

152a. winding yarn by David H. Strother, Harper’s (Aug., 1856)
p. 309
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056089801&vie…

152c. Lock’s Old Stephen. by D.H. Strother – 1845. Martinsburg Va. (P.95.30.391pg19)
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series

305. CF3
Gift Ideas
Image by Jim Surkamp
VIDEO: The Bower and its Families Part 3
www.youtube.com/watch?v=GE_ou8Ylyc8

POST: The Bower and its Families Part 3 (beginning to 3.23 in the video)
civilwarscholars.com/2021/02/the-bower-and-its-families-p…

The Bower and its Families Part 2 (with bibliography)

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University System (apus.edu). This video and all videos in this channel as well as the million words of posts at the corresponding source, civilwarscholars.com – are intended to encourage fact-based discussion to heighten better understanding of the foundational events of our country. Sentiments included in these productions, even if commendable, do not in any way reflect the 21st century policies of the University.

This is the third of about four videos.

I am working with Charles Fox, whose family descended from the remarkable John H. Fox, the owner/operator of three different farms and community leader, revered upon his death and who was born enslaved at the Bower.

I was absorbed in the question of how could and why did those enslaved sang,laughed and danced and even stayed up without sleeping and still working long days in the fields. And yes it is true as a consistent fact of life in Virginia in the early 19th century. I found the same observations in five different diaries in this immediate region. And I came to realize a great truth in this fact which will be explored in the third video. We have been served terribly with descriptions of enslaved peersons as being "child-like and pathetic" ignoring the obvious reality that they received their almost superhuman strength coming from their faith and African musical tradition. That African Americans routinely become the best in any athletic field they enter and the worldwide influence of their musical talents – gospel blues swing jazz motown etc. just underscore these earlier daily practices so long ago.

Glamorous and famous for its visitors (Washington Irving, Robert E. Lee, Jeb Stuart’s entire staff lived there for a month), the pre-Civil War owners practiced people-owning on a large scale – usually about sixty enslaved persons who kept up production there from day to day. A close reading of daily accounts reveals just how much the deepest, knowledge of hunting, cooking, horses etc resided in the most experienced persons of color.

It became famous as the place John Pendleton Kennedy, a relative from Baltimore who also supported Edgar Allan Poe, based his widely read book: "Swallow Barn: A Sojourn in the Old Dominion," that was published in 1832 and 1850.

It was a divided family, with regard to the Civil War, with author Kennedy opposing secession, the Dandridges at the Bower strongly supporting, or as Philip Kennedy put it – Adam Dandridge ate a strong "allowance of the insane root" to quote from Macbeth.

It might include a tragic love story. When John Fox was born in 1845 Adam Stephen Dandridge II was the only adult white male at The Bower.

It circles around Adam Dandridge II and Charles Fox’s great great grandmother "Mary" who was killed at the Bower.

It also follows the incredibly impressive John Fox, one of Mary’s five surviving children and culminates with Charles Fox’s powerfully impressive, of-the-earth, wisdom-dispensing grandfather, Charles Washington Fox.

We’ll leave it at that.

Care is taken to stay consistent with all information in official records (death certificates, Census, marriage records, deeds, and wills) in addition to the Fox family oral tradition, first transmitted by John Fox, with his eye-witness knowledge.

BEGIN

CF 3 0 .54

***

00: – Michael Praetorius: Dances from Terpsichore, Courante
Voices of Music over images 1-7 to :54 – youtube.com

Michael Praetorius: Dances from Terpsichore, Courante
Voices of Music
Hanneke van Proosdij and David Tayler
Directors
Musicians (left to right)
Carla Moore, Gabrielle Wunsch, Lisa Grodin and
Maxine Nemerovski, baroque violins
Maria Caswell, baroque viola
Peter Maund, riqq
Elisabeth Reed and Tanya Tomkins, baroque cellos
Farley Pearce, violone
Hanneke van Proosdij, harpsichord
David Tayler, archlute & percussion
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=yoGvKFSvs0o

1.

Two Women with Head-Ties, Jamaica, 1808-1815 – loc.gov
web4.encyclopediavirginia.org
web4.encyclopediavirginia.org/slave_images/Slavery/detail…

2.
Robert Greenhow Jr., ca. 1808, Charles B. J. Févret de Saint-Mémin (French, 1770 – 1852), pastel and crayon on toned paper, 18 3/8 x 14 in. (47.9 x 35.6 cm.). Gift of Mrs. William R. Scott 98.3.3/3
vmfa.museum
www.vmfa.museum/tours/audio-tours/web-tour-friend-heart-c…

3
Man Smoking a Pipe, ca. 1800-1825
slaveryimages.org
www.slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/1480/mirador

4.
Mrs. Robert Greenhow Sr. (Mary Ann Willis), ca. 1808, Charles B. J. Févret de Saint-Mémin, (French, 1770 – 1852), pastel and crayon on toned paper, 19 5/8 x 13 7/8 in. (49.8 x 35.3 cm. ). Gift of Mrs. William R. Scott 98.3.1/3
vmfa.museum
www.vmfa.museum/tours/audio-tours/web-tour-friend-heart-c…

5. Tangerian Girl by José Tapiro y Baro – 1891. Dahesh Museum of Art in New York
arthistoryproject.com
arthistoryproject.com/artists/jose-tapiro-y-baro/tangeria…

6.
Robert Greenhow Sr., ca. 1808, Charles B. J. Févret de Saint-Mémin (French, 1770 – 1852), pastel and crayon on toned paper, 19 5/8 x 14 1/8 in. (48.8 x 35.9 cm.). Gift of Mrs. William R. Scott 98.3.2/3
vmfa.museum
www.vmfa.museum/tours/audio-tours/web-tour-friend-heart-c…

7.
Absalam by SANTIAGO ARCOS Y MEGALDE
bonhams.com
www.bonhams.com/auctions/23917/lot/10/?category=results

CF3 .54 1.39 Images

***

8. Title

9. Bower aerial
Google Maps
google.com/maps
www.google.com/maps/@39.3664719,-77.9554242,1762m/data=!3…

10. rear exit The Bower taken by Edwin Fitzpatrick
Jefferson County Historical Society (1991). "Between the Shenandoah & the Potomac."
Charles Town, WV: self-published. p. ADD

11. brief moving dresses no sound – Gone With the Wind (fair use)

12. Portrait of Adam Stephen Dandridge, Sr. (1782-1821) by Charles Peale Polk 1799-1800
emuseum.history.org
emuseum.history.org/objects/28061/portrait-of-adam-stephe…

13. same as 11

14. Portrait of Sarah Pendleton Dandridge (Mrs. Adam Stephen Dandridge, Sr.)(1785-1855)
by James W. Macoughtry, Jr. 1831
emuseum.history.org
emuseum.history.org/objects/42669/portrait-of-sarah-pendl…

15. The first quadrille at Almack’s From Recollections of Captain Gronow (1850)
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/363313894910535906/

16. The "Trenis" Quadrille, Plate 19 from "Le Bon Genre," 1805
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/427349452145394118/

17. swirling dress
Gone With tHe Wind fair use and

18. Figure 11. A German Cotillion, Vienna, c.1825. From Scenes du Bal by Charles Henry.
regencydances.org
www.regencydances.org/paper011.php

19. Object: Le baiser deviné; Series: Le Bon Genre – 1812
britishmuseum.org
www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/P_1866-0407-902

***

1:41 – Summer Nights from Desert Winds produced by Shana Aisenberg over images 20-26 to 3:23
2:22 – FX carriages, hooves, horses over images 24-26 to 3:23
2:24 – FX Owl frogs autumn over images 24-25 to 3:01

20. Spider’s web in the sun

21. James Kirke Paulding
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JKPaulding.jpg
& history.navy.mil
www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-p/jk-pauld.htm
Author Government of the United States

22. Joseph of Egypt
frchriszugger.com
frchriszugger.com/2018/03/21/joseph-of-egypt-and-christ/

**
J. K. Paulding: I once knew a worthy old lady, who never saw or heard any thing in this World that did not put her in mind of Joseph in Egypt. Whenever any thing was told her, no matter what,

23. A pretty girl and an old woman both taking snuff. Coloured stipple engraving after L. Boilly, ca. 1827.
wellcomecollection.org INCLUDE Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
wellcomecollection.org/works/q6j67tvc

**
she would take a pinch of snuff, and exclaim with a devotional air, “Ah! that puts me in mind of Joseph in Egypt.” Nobody could tell why; but so it was

*
Paulding, James Kirke. (1835). "Letters from the South By a Northern man."
New-York : Harper & brothers
p. 50 Vol 2
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112046404643&vi…

24. TITLE James Kirke Paulding in 1816, while heading north in the Shenandoah Valley
to Martinsburg:

25. Shenandoah Valley by William Louis Sonntag, Sr. 1859–1860Virginia Historical Society
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shenandoah_Valley_William…

**

In traversing this mountain region, one of the first things that struck me was the solemn, severe silence which prevailed every where, and only broken at distant intervals, by the note of the cock of the woods; the chirping of a ground squirrel; the crash of a falling tree, or the long echoes of the fowler’s gun, which render the silence, thus broken in upon for a moment, still more striking.

p. 116 vol 1
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112046404387&vi…

26. Drawing by Garth Williams, 1953 version of Little House in the Big Woods, pg. 123
silverhomestead.com
silverhomestead.com/how-to-make-brown-sugar/

**

In many places the only traces of human agency are the incisions of the sugar maple, and the little troughs at the foot of the tree turned upside down, to wait the flowing of the sap in the spring.

Paulding Vol. 1 p. 118
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112046404387&vi…

CF 3 3.23 5.32

***

3:23 – FX hum of voices over images 27-30 to 5:32

*

Begins

Paulding, James Kirke. (1817) "Letters from the South, written during an excursion in the summer of 1816." New York, Published by James Eastburn & co.

pp. 117-131

p. 121
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/121/mode/1up

**

27. James Kirke Paulding
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JKPaulding.jpg
& history.navy.mil
www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-p/jk-pauld.htm
Author Government of the United States

At one of the taverns along the road, we were set down in the same room with a man, who was

28.
Eugène Pelletan by Nadar 1855–59 – Purchase, The Howard Gilman Foundation Gift and Rogers Fund,
metmuseum.org/
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/266480

**

an ill-looking, hard-featured, pock-marked, fellow. He was going, it seems, to Richmond.

WARNING DISTURBING ACCOUNTS OF EXTREME CRUELTY

All along the road, I made it his business to inquire where lived a man who might perhaps be tempted to sell him his slaves and when I got some half a dozen of them, I tied their hands behind their backs, and drove them three or four hundred miles, or more, bare-headed, and half naked, I gave out that they were runaway slaves I was carrying home to their masters.

On one occasion a black woman exposed this fallacy, and told the story of her being kidnapped; and (123) when I got her into a wood out of hearing, I beat her, till her back was white."

I married all the men and women I bought, because they would sell better for being man and wife !

"For many is the time I have separated wives from husbands, and husbands from wives, and parents from children ;

but then I made them amends by marrying them again as soon as I had a chance

I made one bad purchase, though," I bought a young mulatto girl, a lovely creature, — a great bargain. She had been the favourite of her master, who had lately married.

The difficulty was, to get her to go ; for she loved her master.

However, I swore most bitterly I was only going to take her to her mother at , and she went with me; though she seemed to doubt me very much.

But when she discovered at last that we were out of the State, I thought she would go mad ; and, in fact, the next night, drowned herself in the river close by.

I lost a good five hundred dollars by this foolish trick,

p. 121
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/121/mode/1up

29. James Kirke Paulding
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JKPaulding.jpg
& history.navy.mil
www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-p/jk-pauld.htm
Author Government of the United States

**
page 120

it is seldom we see the ties of kindred or of conjugal affection, stronger than in the poor negro. He will travel twelre, fifteen, or twenty miles, to see his wife and children, after his daily

30. by Miguel Ângelo Lupi 1879. This is a couple of former slaves that accompained a portuguese aristocrat, Serpa Pinto, in his voyages through Africa
pinterest.es
www.pinterest.es/pin/443886107023349726/

page 121

labour is over, and return in the morning to his labour again. If he obtains his liberty, he will often devote the first years of his liberty to buying their freedom; — thus setting an example of conjugal and parental affection, which the white man may indeed admire ; but, it is feared, would seldom imitate.

pp. 120-121
archive.org
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/120/mode/1up

Paulding, James Kirke. (1817) "Letters from the South, written during an excursion in the summer of 1816." New York, Published by James Eastburn & co.

pp. 117-131

CF3 5.32 7.18

***

Gourd Banjo and Hambone on a Mississippi Porch
Markus James – gourd banjo
Calvin Jackson – hambone

From the album "Head For The Hills" by Markus James;
As heard in the HBO film "The Immortal Life Of Henrietta Lacks" featuring Oprah Winfrey
www.facebook.com/markusjamesm...

youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTKE3IaVVmA

Images 31, 32 and 34-38
The Old Plantation attributed to John Rose
Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Williamsburg, Virginia
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Old_Plantation#/media/File:Slav…

33. Bower Farm Leetown WV – Jim Surkamp

39. The Highest Bidder by Harry Roseland
encore-editions.com
www.encore-editions.com/to-the-highest-bidder-by-harry-ro…

40.The Power of Music by Wm Sidney Mount – 1847
theimaginativeconservative.org
theimaginativeconservative.org/2018/11/images-america-wil…

41. "Aunt Lucy" Hermitage – 1915
Essie Collins Matthews, Aunt Phebe, Uncle Tom and Others: Character Studies Among the Old Slaves of the South, Fifty Years After: illustrated from photographs made by the author in the cabins and on the plantations (Columbus, Ohio, 1915)
slaveryimages.org
slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/1553
Aunt Phebe, Uncle Tom and Other, p. 104

42. Man with axe
Kennedy, John Pendleton, (1856) "Swallow barn, or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion." New York, G.P. Putnam & Company.
p. 404
hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433076089170&vie…

43a. Head of a Black man by Eastman Johnson – 1868
wikiart.org
www.wikiart.org/en/eastman-johnson/head-of-a-black-man-1868

43b. Frank Wagoner by D.H. Strother Harpers Feb. 1855, p. 300
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090080&vie…

44. The Banjo Player by Wm Sidney Mount – 1856
theimaginativeconservative.org
theimaginativeconservative.org/2018/11/images-america-wil…

45. Swallow Barn man with pipe
Kennedy, John Pendleton, (1856) "Swallow barn, or, A sojourn in the Old Dominion." New York, G.P. Putnam & Company.
p. 448
hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433076089170&vie…

46a. Bill Napper by D.H. Strother 1845
P.95.30.391pg13
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

46b. detail The Power of Music by Wm Sidney Mount – 1847
theimaginativeconservative.org
theimaginativeconservative.org/2018/11/images-america-wil…

47a. “A Swedish Gentleman instructing a Negro Prince” by Carl Fredric von Breda – 1789
Karolina Kristensson, © Nordiska museet
digitaltmuseum.se
digitaltmuseum.se/011023459953/tavla

47b. cook by D.H. Strother Harpers Jan. 1856 p. 177
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090064&vie…

47c. Antique Martinique Merchant
www.picclick.com
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/463589355373107433/

48. Shell Mound Station by D.H. Strother
P.95.30.393pg4a
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

SOURCES of given persons: names in this chapter:

First Section
Pinco – from account book of A.S.Dandridge II – Jefferson County Museum & The Mighty Myth of the Happy Plantation at civilwarscholars.com;
Carey (Swallow Barn);
Cate, Eliza, Serina, Anne and Mary (wills of Adam Stephen and his daughter, Anne Stephen Hunter),

Second Section – Source of persons’ names in the montage

Walter Dean Myers, who was born in Martinsburg, descended from the Dennis family who worked at The Bower and has become a respected author, wrote this in his book, “Now Is Your Time”:

“In 1849, Adam Stephen Dandridge II lived at The Bower and ran the plantation. His brother Philip lived nearby. When Philip needed to secure his loans, he put up part of his inheritance, which consisted of part of the Bower lands and his Africans:

‘The following slaves, the property of the said Philip P. Dandridge, now in his possession in Jefferson County, or in the custody of Dr. Gellot Hollingsworth and Samuel Hollingsworth, in the State of Louisiana, together with the increase (children) of said slaves – vis; Cato, Henny, George, Robert, John, Daniel, James, Simon, Peter, Tina, Caroline, Leah, Mary Ann and her children, Rachael, Ann, Louisa & children, Frances, Margaret, Patty, including all of the slaves of the said Philip P. Dandridge, whether named or not. . . to secure a debt of said P. P. Dandridge’ – (Myers, P. 99)

The Mighty Myth of the Happy Plantation

civilwarscholars.com/2011/06/sample-post/

interview 2002 with Jim Surkamp

civilwarscholars.com

***

7:20 – Shana Aisenberg on banjo with accompaniment over images 49

49. "Mary" semblance
David Hunter Strother, Sketches of “contrabands,” enslaved African Americans who crossed into the federal lines, 1862. Courtesy of the Library of Virginia.
southernspaces.org
southernspaces.org/2010/retelling-virginias-migration-his…

**
I got this from Uncle Dewey because he spoke for black history month down here. He said that somebody told the mistress there was four little foxes down there looking out the window: She got the market basket and went down ‘thought he was talking about animals.
And they were these Negro children. So of course she told the master. So he said: ‘Well just bring ‘em on up here and he put ‘em in the kitchen. And he said they would take a tub, like a foot tub, put bread in it, and milk, pour it in there and they ate with the cats and dogs under the kitchen table.

But by being at the big house, they learned to talk. They learned to read. They just learned things. When you’re ’round, you pick up – he was not back there in the field somewhere.

So, one of ’em became a preacher. One of ’em became a cook. And that one I think – we would say – like a butler. He was ssomething like – if you saw "Roots" – he was like Chicken John. And as I said, the girl, they lost trace of her. Steve went to Ohio. So they lost trace of him. And farmer John, see, he bought the oxen and he cut lumber. He was known as a lumber jacket.

And if you would read the history of St. Paul’s Church, it was John Fox – that’s my grandfather – It was George Johnson – grandfather on my mother’s side, a Carter and I think three other men – bought that piece of land where that church is. They paid for it. An’ lot of the lumber in the church John Fox gave.

50. Bertha Jones, Jefferson Co. NAACP Executive Committee
jeffcomuseumwv.pastperfectonline.com
jeffcomuseumwv.pastperfectonline.com/archive/75847923-F4F…

51. Sunday Morning in Virginia by Winslow Homer – 1877 Cincinnati Art Museum
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Winslow_Homer_-_Sunday_Mo…

52a. A patent of nobility by D. H. Strother Harpers July, 1866 p. 139
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090353&vie…

52b
Benjamin Fox
findagrave.com
www.findagrave.com/memorial/190534275/benjamin-f-fox

53.
Humphery black child on horseback by D.H. Strother
P.95.30.390pg13
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

54.
Mary Kindling the fire by D.H. Strother Harpers Aug, 1855 p. 295
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090072&vie…

55.
Steve Aunt Winnie by D.F. Strother Harper’s Aug, 1856 p. 310
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056089801&vie…

56. Bower field and horse by Jim Surkamp

57a.
(John Fox semblance) African American boy sitting by D. H. Strother – 1864
P.95.30.345
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

57b. John Henry Fox – courtesy Charles Fox

58
St. Paul’s Baptist Church
Kearneysville, WV
google.com/maps
www.google.com/maps/uv?pb=!1s0x89c9ffadeda3091b%3A0x5c698…

later

"Baltimore" tea et by D.H. Strother 1860
P.95.30.27
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series 6. Artworks, 1833-1887, undated
archives.lib.wvu.edu
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

The Wood-pile by D.F. Strother Harper’s Aug, 1856 p. 316
babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056089801&vie…
for litle potatoe segment

CF 3 9:48 12.14

***
9:48 – hum over images 59-60 to 10:07
Skip James- Hard Time Killin’ Floor Blues
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNftrsCMiQs

59. Bower field and horse – Jim Surkamp

60. TITLE

**
In 1754, the New Light Baptists, led by Shubal Stearns, came down from Connecticut, crossed into Virginia at the Opequon & clashed head-on with the Episcopal Church – the State religion.

10:08 – "Deliver" New Light Baptist Church of Pittsburgh over images 61-80 to 12:16

starts at 1:52-5:09
New Light Temple Baptist Church (Pittsburgh, PA) Jubilee Choir 1997
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=StiBu3Dla74

61 TITLE

**
The children of Africa down through the Shenandoah Valley got it at once. They had every day sung and beat the beat for thousands of years.

62. TITLE

**

On farms and plantations, they inhabited their Inner Kingdom and together invented and sang out Truth in the Lion’s den. But using these newly learned Biblical stories, they confounded the Lion.

63-80 New Light Temple Baptist Church (Pittsburgh, PA) Jubilee Choir 1997

CF3 12.16 17.00

SOURCES:

"THE COLORED TROOPS AT PETERSBURG" by GEN. HENRY GODDARD THOMAS. in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Vol. 4. New York: The Century Co.pp. 563-568

CHAPTER 22 – Manassas: The Men Become One by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com
civilwarscholars.com/2017/03/story-22-manassas-the-men-be…

CHAPTER 22: Manassas Camp – The Men Become One (from Jasper Tjhompson’s Destiny Day)
youtube.com
youtu.be/KSXoj0c5My4#t=2h49m57s
***

hum over images 59-60 to 10:07
Skip James- Hard Time Killin’ Floor Blues
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNftrsCMiQs

**
81. TITLE
At any quiet moment together, one might test a tune and sing it into the silence. And the others "study" it, some adding a harmony, or the first person would make the tune or beat better. Others might join. Then more might. And a mountain would
begin to move, lifting hearts.

TITLES:

82. WITH THE U.S. COLORED TROOPS

83. 23RD INFANTRY REGIMENT

84. ON THE EVE OF THE BATTLE OF THE CRATER JULY 30, 1864

85. "STUDY-ING"

***

12:56 – Soldier Song by Shana Aisenberg over images 85-92 to 13:35
13:35 – guitar by Shana Aisenberg over images 92-102 to 15:15
15:15 over images 102-104 to 17:10

86, 87, 88
[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing] taken by E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm) – [New York City : E. & H.T. Anthony Co., photographed between 1862 and 1865, printed later]
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/98500957/

**
Robert K. Beecham, James Douglas, Voghl Foster, George Kellum, John H. Simms, George W. Taylor, Uriah Perry, Perry Smith, James Smith, William H. Chandler,

**
Adam C. Liscomb, Charles Walker, Henry Yates, George H. Briscoe, Peter Churchwell, Zelotis Fessenden, Noble A. Stewart, John W. Thomas, Francis Tucker, Abraham Tuxon, Basil Tyler, Richard Saunders, Alexander Savoy

89.
Musical notation of Soldier Song by Maj. Gen. Henry Thomas
p. 564
archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof04cent#page/564/mode/1up

90. Head of a Man (Ira Frederick Aldridge) by John P. Simpson
tate.org.uk
www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/simpson-head-of-a-man-ira-fr…

dual
91. Maj. Gen Henry Thomas
p. 565
archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof04cent#page/565/mode/1up

92.
Drawing by Ward S. Day, 5th New York, Company C

93.
News from home by Edwin Forbes – Sept. 30, 1863
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.20648/

**

Strolling often around the camp their commander Henry G. Thomas observed later:

Any striking event or piece of news was usually eagerly discussed by the white troops, and in the ranks military critics were as plenty and perhaps more voluble than among the officers.

94. & 95.
[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing] taken by E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm) – [New York City : E. & H.T. Anthony Co., photographed between 1862 and 1865, printed later]
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/98500957/

Not so with the blacks; important news was usually followed by long silence. They sat about in groups, “studying,” as they called it. They waited, like the Quakers, for the spirit to move; when the spirit moved,

96.
Head of a Man (Ira Frederick Aldridge) by John P. Simpson
tate.org.uk
www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/simpson-head-of-a-man-ira-fr…

one of their singers would uplift a mighty voice, like a bard of old, in a wild sort of chant. If he did not strike a sympathetic chord in his hearers,

97 & 98
[Wounded colored soldiers at Aikens Landing] taken by E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm) – [New York City : E. & H.T. Anthony Co., photographed between 1862 and 1865, printed later]
loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/98500957/

if they did not find in his utterance the exponent of their idea, he would sing it again and again, altering sometimes the words, more often the music. If his changes met general acceptance, one voice after another would chime in; a rough harmony of three parts would add itself;

99. 26th United States Colored Volunteer Inf. at Camp William Penn, 1865
archives.gov
www.archives.gov/files/research/military/civil-war/photos…

other groups would join his, and the song would become the song of the command.

100.
Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

**

One evening Thomas saw this act of creation and wrote down its core.

The joyous guffaw always breaking out about the camp-fire ceased. They formed circles in their company streets and were sitting on the ground intently and solemnly “studying.” At last a heavy voice began to sing,

“We-e looks li-ike we-en a-a-marchin’ on, We looks li-ike men-er-war.”

dual
101
Head of a Man (Ira Frederick Aldridge) by John P. Simpson
tate.org.uk
www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/simpson-head-of-a-man-ira-fr…

102
Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

Over and over again he sang it, making slight changes in the melody. The rest listened to him intently; no sign of approval or disapproval escaped their lips or appeared on their faces. All at once, when his refrain had struck the right response in their hearts, his group took it up, and shortly half a thousand voices were upraised extemporizing a half dissonant middle part and bass. It was a picturesque scene these dark men, with their white eyes and teeth and full red lips, crouching over a smoldering camp-fire, in dusky shadow, with only the feeble rays of the lanterns of the first sergeants and the lights of the candles dimly showing through the tents. The sound was as weird as the scene, when all the voices struck the low E (last note but one), held it, and then rose to A with a portamento as sonorous as it was clumsy. Until we fought the battle of the crater they sang this every night to the exclusion of all other songs.- Battles & Leaders V. 4
archive.org pp. 563-564

archive.org
archive.org/stream/battlesleadersof04cent#page/563/mode/1up
pp. 563-564

103. TITLE
www.storey.com/article/hello-darkness/

**
Songs and laughter heal aching hearts, weary bones

104. Full moon
naturalnavigator.com
www.naturalnavigator.com/news/2019/10/how-to-tell-if-you-…

CF3 17.11 22.45

***

17:11 FX owls, frogs/frog chorus/summer night ambience insects, crickets over images 104-
109 to 17:43

104. full moon
naturalnavigator.com
www.naturalnavigator.com/news/2019/10/how-to-tell-if-you-…

**
TITLES

105.
3 AM July 23rd 1850, a full moon

106.
"The Quarter" of A.S. Dandridge – Leetown, then Va.

107.
The morning of the wheat harvest . . .

***

17:27 – hambone and gourd banjo over images 108-118 to 19:10
From the album "Head For The Hills" by Markus James
Markus James – gourd banjo
Calvin Jackson – hambone
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTKE3IaVVmA

17:33 black laughing over images 108-111 to 17:58
Black People Laughing | Try Not To Laugh Challenge
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCq_D-vGueM&t=194s

108.
As usual, cabins in the Quarter vibrated most of the night with song, dance, and laughter around their fires.

109.
Traveling diarists across Virginia reported for decades that the black workers were incredibly fit, slept little,

***

17:44 – FX fire burning, wood crackle over images 110-118 to 19:10

TITLE
**
sharing the wee hours in a joyous, private world.
montage

110. Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112
clockwise begin lower vieer’s right"

110a. & 110b.
Negro Life at the South by Eastman Johnson – 1859 New-York Historical Society, The Robert L. Stuart Collection
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negro_Life_at_the_South#/media/File…
110b. Kitchen at Mount Vernon by Eastman Johnson – 1864 – Mount Vernon
emuseum.mountvernon.org
emuseum.mountvernon.org/objects/6118/kitchen-at-mount-ver…

110c. Dinah by Eastman Johnson – 1867 Gibbes Museum of Art
npg.si.edu
npg.si.edu/object/npg_2006.007_Gibbes

110d., 110e., 110f. Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
Plantation Dance ring shout (3 still images)
mhenrystl Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQgrIcCtys0

110g. Four Studies of the Head of a Negro by Peter Paul Rubens – 1615 Royal Museum of Fine Arts of Belgium
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

110h. Uncle Tom and Little Eva by Edwin Long 1866 – Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum
commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edwin_Longsden_Long_-_Unc…

110i. Head of a Moor by Peter Paul Rubens – 1620 – Hyde Collection
uir.unisa.ac.za
uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/19126/Van%20Haute_…

110j. Negro Life at the South by Eastman Johnson – 1859 New-York Historical Society, The Robert L. Stuart Collection
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negro_Life_at_the_South#/media/File…

***

17:53 – frying bacon over image 111 to 18:16

TITLE
** We’re bakin’ cakes for the ‘morrow
111. Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

TITLE
** "Mush Cake" "Corn Cake" lard + cornmeal + water salt
112. Camp Fire by Winslow Homer 1880
metmuseum.org
www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/11112

113. (Same as 110)
begin Bayard

**
At four o’clock in the morning smoke was still rising from the huts of the negroes. They have fire during the entire night, and in the hottest season. Often, instead of sleeping, they smoke, sing or converse, without that loss of sleep affecting them.

114. Dance in Congo Square in the late 18th century, artist’s conception by E. W. Kemble from a century later
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congo_Square#/media/File:Dancing_in…

**
Almost all of them, after a night devoted to pleasure, can take up their labor without

115. Carolus-Duran, l’homme endormi, 1861, hst
Musée des beaux-arts de Lille visite du 3 juin 2009 © gaelle kermen 2009
pinterest.com
www.pinterest.com/pin/497929302535845386/

**
experiencing that weariness that a white man would feel who had been deprived of his rest.

*
CHAPTER XXVII
at four o’clock in the morning smoke was still rising from the huts of the negroes
They have fire during the entire night, and in the hottest season. Often, instead of sleeping, they smoke, sing or converse, without that loss of sleep affecting them. Almost all of them, after a night devoted to pleasure, can take up their labor without experiencing that weariness that a white man would feel who had been deprived of his rest.

Bayard, Ferdinand Marie, (1950). "Travels of a Frenchman in Maryland and Virginia,
with a description of Philadelphia and Baltimore, in 1791: or, Travels in the interior of the United States, to Bath, Winchester, in the valley of the Shenandoah, etc., etc., during the summer of 1791." Translated by Ben C. McCary. An Arbor, MU: Edwards Brothers.
catalog.hathitrust.org
catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001263616

*
MORE
CHAPTER XXVII

I set out at four o’clock in the morning in order to be able to be on the mountains before the sun was too high. A light fog cov ered the valley like a transparent veil, and through which appeared the tree tops, the houses of the planters, as well as the huts of the Negroes, from which smoke was still rising. The slaves have fire during the entire night, and in the hottest season. Often, instead of sleeping, they smoke, sing or converse, without that loss of sleep affecting them. Almost all of them, after a night devoted to pleas ure, can take up their labor without experiencing that weariness that a white man would feel who had been deprived of his rest.

I found the squirrels wide awake. They were climbing with agility in the largest oaks, taking the precaution to keep the entire thickness of the body of the tree between them and me, whom they looked at from time to time to be sure that I had not gone round their file leader. The instinct of self preservation no doubt sug gested to them that precaution which presents the greatest obsta cles to the hunter; but all that ruse does not preserve them from the shot of the enemy; it has made him only more skillful.

In the regions where, as in the Shenandoah Valley, squirrels are very numerous, they are hunted without dogs; but if you want to kill a great number of them, you must get up early in the morn ing and wait for them to return from their nightly wanderings.

There are three species of squirrels, the first differs from the one we know in France only in that it is smaller, and the Amer icans call the members of this group Fox-Squirrel; the second, smaller, has grey fur; the third still smaller, but of the same color, is that of the flying squirrels: the latter have two mem branes which they spread out when they spring from one tree to another. The flesh of the grey squirrels is white and tender: they are roasted and seasoned with cream sauce: the furriers buy their skins.

p. 96
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015027057820&vie…
END MORE

Over images 116-117
**
I never meet a man — unless he is quite old — that he is not whistling ; and the women sing from morning till night. And as to dancing, the hardest day’s work does not restrain their desire to indulge in such pastime.
Swallow Barn pp. 454
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=plaint…

116. The Old Plantation. Courtesy of the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, Va.
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Old_Plantation#/media/File:Slav…

**
I never met a negro man — unless he is quite old — that he is not whistling;

117. Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
Plantation Dance ring shout – youtube.com

**
and the women sing from morning till night.

118. Self-Portrait by Eastman Johnson 1865 – Brooklyn Museum
brooklynmuseum.org
www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/2234

**
And as to dancing, the hardest day’s work does not restrain their desire to indulge in such pastime.

***

19:10 – FX cockrell crow over image 119 to 19:12

**
They are great sportsmen, too.

**
They angle and haul the seine, and hunt and tend their traps, with a zest that never grows weary.

**
Their gayety of heart is constitutional and perennial, and when they are together they are as voluble and noisy. birds. In short, I think them the most good-natured, and happily-constructed human beings I have ever seen.

Swallow Barn
pp. 454-455
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=1up&am…

**
During the harvest, when their toil is pushed to its utmost, they dance almost the whole night. – Swallow Barn pp. 454-455

119. sunrise over wheat field
wallpaperflare.com
www.wallpaperflare.com/earth-field-sun-sunbeam-sunrise-wh…

***

19:14 – scythe cutting wheat over images 120-121 to 19:27

120. Men Harvesting Grain with Scythes
wisconsinhistory.org
www.wisconsinhistory.org/Records/Image/IM59541

121. John Pendleton Kennedy, C.1825
by Philip Tilyard
art.com
www.art.com/products/p38298748725-sa-i9815433/philip-tily…

**
JPK – wrote of life at The Bower that I know well. I have seen that they are also great sportsmen, too.

122. Mending the Net 1882 by Thomas Eakins
poulwebb.blogspot.com
1882 Mending the Net
watercolour

**
They angle and haul the seine, and hunt and tend their traps,

***

19:37 – Shana Aisenberg banjo over images 123-128

123. possum
Swallow Barn p. 405 babel.hathitrust.org
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=1up&am…

**
with a zest that never grows weary.

124. The Dancing Boy – 1878 by Thomas Eakins
poulwebb.blogspot.com
poulwebb.blogspot.com/2012/07/thomas-eakins-part-2.html

**
Their gaiety of heart is constitutional and perennial, and when they are together they are voluble and noisy. In short, I think them the most good-natured, and happily-constructed human beings I have ever seen.

125. Uncle Tom and Little Eva by Edwin Longsden Long – 1866 Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum, Bournemouth
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncle_Tom_and_Little_Eva_(painting)

END JPK QUOTE
INSERT PAULING
DEAR FRANK,

126.
The Banjo Lesson 1893 by Henry Ossawa Tanner
wikiart.org
www.wikiart.org/en/henry-ossawa-tanner/the-banjo-lesson-1893

Over images 126-133
**
They are by far the most musical of any portion of the inhabitants of the United States, and in the evening I have seen them reclining in their boats on the canal at Richmond, playing on the banjo, and singing in a style — I dare say, equal to a Venetian Gondolier.

Then they whistle as clear as the notes of the fife and their laugh is the very echo of hilarity.

Paulding, James Kirke. (1817) "Letters from the South, written during an excursion in the summer of 1816." New York, Published by James Eastburn & co.
p. 118
archive.org
archive.org/details/lettersfromsouth01paul/page/118/mode/1up

**

They are by far the most musical of any portion of the inhabitants of the United States, and in the evening I have seen them playing on the banjo, and singing in a style — I dare say, equal to a Venetian Gondolier.

127. African American man singing
New Light Temple Baptist Church (Pittsburgh, PA) Jubilee Choir 1997 – youtube.com

20:08 over image 128 to 20:15
The Best Singing Gondolier at the Venetian, Las Vegas – Tino!
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCrsWf2x5cA

128. Venetian
ethnicepicurenyc.com
www.ethnicepicurenyc.com/culture-performances/2017/2/2/it…

129. James Kirke Paulding

**
Then they whistle as clear as the notes of the fife ;

***

20:20 – fife by Kellerman and whistle by Bobbe McFerren over images 130-131 to 20:58

130.
Irish Hornpipes – Wouter Kellerman on Fife – The Live Sessions (Part 1)
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q4Ak4FynFYE

131
DontWorryBeHappy #Vevo
Bobby McFerrin – Don’t Worry Be Happy (Official Video)
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=d-diB65scQU

***

20:58 – people laughing over images 132-133 to 21:19
Black People Laughing | Try Not To Laugh Challenge
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCq_D-vGueM&t=194s

132. James Kirke Paulding

**
and their laugh is the very echo of hilarity.

133. Four Studies of the Head of a Negro (black) by Peter Paul Rubens
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

***

21:25 – Shana Aisenberg banjo over images 133-141 to 22:35

**

and their laugh is the very echo of hilarity.

END PAULDING

**
He will make himself happy in the traps that have been laid for him; he will roll in their nets and sleep. All doors will fly open to him

134. Jacob Jordaens, Study of a Black Man’s Head (ca. 1620). Medium and size unknown. Formerly New York, Estate of Jacob Goldschmidt; present location unknown
OTHER SOURCE OF ART AFRICAN
Black tronies in seventeenth-centur y Flemish ar t and the African presence
uir.unisa.ac.za
uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/19126/Van%20Haute_…

**

who has a mildness more defiant than mere courage.

135. Barroom Dancing by John Lewis Krimmel – 1828 –
Library of Congress – commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Barroom_Dancing_by_John_L…

**

He will be always "taken in." To be taken in everywhere is to see

136. The Banjo Lesson 1893 by Henry Ossawa Tannerwikiart.org
wikiart.org
www.wikiart.org/en/henry-ossawa-tanner/the-banjo-lesson-1893

**
the inside of everything.

SOURCE on the greenhorn
G.K. Chesterton Pick Papers notes
gkc.org.uk
www.gkc.org.uk/gkc/books/CD-1.html#IV

137. Thoughts of Liberia – Emancipation by Edward White 1861 – New York Historical Society
wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwin_White#/media/File:’Thoughts_o…
137a. You sang
137b. away
137c. being owned

You sang away being owned

138. Four Studies of the Head of a Negro by Peter Paul Rubens
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

139 Four Studies of the Head of a Negro by Peter Paul Rubens
wga.hu
www.wga.hu/support/viewer_m/z.html

140 Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
Plantation Dance ring shout (3 still images)
mhenrystl Georgia Geechee Gullah Ring Shouters
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQgrIcCtys0

141 full moon
naturalnavigator.com
www.naturalnavigator.com/news/2019/10/how-to-tell-if-you-…

JPK

Their fondness for music and dancing is a predominant passion. I never meet a negro man — unless he is quite old — that he is not whistling ; and the women sing from morning till night. And as to dancing, the hardest day’s work does not restrain their desire to indulge in such pastime. During the harvest, when their toil is pushed to its utmost — the time being one of recognized privileges — they dance almost the whole night. They are great sportsmen, too. They angle and haul the seine, and hunt and tend their traps, with a zest that never grows weary. Their gayety of heart is constitutional and perennial, and when they are together they are voluble and noisy. In short, I think them the most good-natured, careless, light-hearted, and happily-constructed human beings I have ever seen.
Swallow Barn pp. 454
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hxqc5z&view=plaint…

CF3 22.45 25.53

*
CHAPTER 11 – A Year’s Work in 1850 by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com
civilwarscholars.com/2017/09/chapter-11-a-years-work-in-1…

***

22:45 – FX sound of overseer’s tin trumpet over images 142 and 142a to 23:01
Slave Horn – A History of Kentucky in 25 Objects KET – Kentucky Educational Television
:31 sound
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOZgNrOPvu0

22:45 – FX full summer night sounds over images 142-142b to 23:07

142. Tin Horn 12 Years a Slave movie
142b.
www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOZgNrOPvu0

142a. Bower field and horse – Jim Surkamp

142b. Sunrise on wheat field

***

23:03 – FX sharpening scythes over images 142b and 143 to 23:15
23:14 – cutting wheat with scythes over image 143 to 23:55
23:22 – Rosie work song over image 143 to 23:59
Alan Lomax, Negro Prison & Blues Songs Rosie
youtube.com
www.youtube.com/watch?v=fs1lgG81ZV8&list=PLcxxc3BIKvC…

143. Men Harvesting Grain with Scythes
wisconsinhistory.org
www.wisconsinhistory.org/Records/Image/IM59541

***

23:59 – Shana Aisenberg on mandolin over images 144-153 to 25:53.

144a. 1850 Poor Richard’s Almanac
archive.org
archive.org/stream/poorrichardsalm00frangoog#page/n18/mod…

144b. Farmers Nooning by William Sidney Mount – 1836
Long Island Museum (United States – Stony Brook, Long Island, New York)
artsandculture.google.com
artsandculture.google.com/asset/farmers-nooning-william-s…

***

24:09 – FX ravens over image 145 to 24:20

145. Stacking wheat by Edwin Forbes. – 1863 loc.gov
www.loc.gov/item/2004661851/

146. Corn Husking by Eastman Johnson – 1860
Everson Museum of Art commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corn_Husking_by_Eastman_J…(1860).jpg

147. Charleston Vegetable Woman by William Aiken Walker
wahooart.com
en.wahooart.com/@@/8XX6CG-William-Aiken-Walker-Charleston…

See W.A. Walker en.wahooart.com/Art.nsf/Art_EN?Open&Complex&Query=(([Champ1]=%22William%20Aiken%20Walker%22)%20AND%20(%22Painting%22,%22Vegetables%22,%22Women%22,%22@PortraitSlim@%22,%22%22,%22AA5555%22))

***

24:49 – FX chopping wood over images 148 to 25:00

148a. Rural Scene by Louis Maurer – 1856 commons.wikimedia.org
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Louis_Maurer_Preparing_fo…

148b. A patent of nobility by David Hunter Strother –
Harper’s July 1866 – babel.hathitrust.org
p. 139
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056090353&vie…

149. The Sower by Jean-François Millet – 1850 Museum of Fine Arts – Gift of Quincy Adams Shaw through Quincy Adams Shaw, Jr., and Mrs. Marian Shaw Haughton
mfa.org
collections.mfa.org/objects/31601

***

25:14 – FX barking dog over image 150 to 25:18

150a. Cider_Colonial-Press_Retouched
eastfallshouse.com
www.eastfallshouse.com/update-party-goes-hard-core/

150b. Campfire
artofmanliness.com
www.artofmanliness.com/articles/three-essential-campfires…

150c. apple in palm of dark hand
indigoculturalcenter.org
indigoculturalcenter.org/racial-equity-training-and-consu…

***

25:18 – squealing hogs over image 151 to 25:26.

151a. Catching Hogs by David Hunter Strother 1857 – West Virginia and Regional History Center accession number (W1995.030.004)
archives.lib.wvu.edu/repositories/2/archival_objects/105044

151b. Smoked Ham at the Bonnie Crest Inn, North Carolina by William Aiken Walker – 1886
wahooart.com
en.wahooart.com/@@/8DP9RF-William%20Aiken%20Walker-Smoked…

152b. (center) “JENNY . . .A GOOD SPINSTER”
inthewordsofwomen.com
inthewordsofwomen.com/?cat=96

152a. winding yarn by David H. Strother, Harper’s (Aug., 1856)
p. 309
babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015056089801&vie…

152c. Lock’s Old Stephen. by D.H. Strother – 1845. Martinsburg Va. (P.95.30.391pg19)
West Virginia and Regional History Center David Hunter Strother, Artist, Artwork and Papers Series